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3 The Application Program Interface. This section describes the chem concept research, C API for Lua, that is, the set of C functions available to the host program to communicate with Lua. All API functions and related types and constants are declared in the header file lua.h . Even when we use the term function, any facility in the API may be provided as a macro instead. All such macros use each of their arguments exactly once (except for the first argument, which is always a Lua state), and so do not generate any hidden side-effects. As in most C libraries, the Lua API functions do not check their arguments for validity or consistency. However, you can change this behavior by compiling Lua with a proper definition for the macro luai_apicheck , in file luaconf.h . Lua uses a virtual stack to a definitional, pass values to and from C. Each element in this stack represents a Lua value ( nil , number, string, etc.).
Whenever Lua calls C, the called function gets a new stack, which is independent of previous stacks and of stacks of C functions that are still active. Chem Concept Research? This stack initially contains any arguments to cotton club, the C function and it is where the concept, C function pushes its results to be returned to the caller (see lua_CFunction ). For convenience, most query operations in the API do not follow a strict stack discipline. Instead, they can refer to any element in the stack by using an anthropological essays index : A positive index represents an absolute stack position (starting at chem concept research 1); a negative index represents an offset relative to the top of the stack. More specifically, if the stack has n elements, then index 1 represents the first element (that is, the element that was pushed onto the stack first) and index n represents the last element; index -1 also represents the last element (that is, the element at the top) and services, index -n represents the first element. Chem Concept Paper? We say that an index is valid if it lies between 1 and the stack top (that is, if 1 ≤ abs(index) ≤ top ). When you interact with Lua API, you are responsible for ensuring consistency. Cv Writing Service? In particular, you are responsible for chem paper research, controlling stack overflow . You can use the function lua_checkstack to grow the essay on mental health services, stack size. Whenever Lua calls C, it ensures that at least LUA_MINSTACK stack positions are available. LUA_MINSTACK is defined as 20, so that usually you do not have to worry about stack space unless your code has loops pushing elements onto the stack. Most query functions accept as indices any value inside the available stack space, that is, indices up to the maximum stack size you have set through lua_checkstack . Concept Paper Research? Such indices are called acceptable indices . More formally, we define an acceptable index as follows:
Note that 0 is never an acceptable index. Unless otherwise noted, any function that accepts valid indices can also be called with pseudo-indices , which represent some Lua values that are accessible to essay, C code but which are not in paper the stack. Pseudo-indices are used to access the on mental health, thread environment, the function environment, the registry, and the upvalues of a C function (see §3.4). The thread environment (where global variables live) is concept research, always at pseudo-index LUA_GLOBALSINDEX . The environment of the running C function is always at pseudo-index LUA_ENVIRONINDEX . To access and change the value of global variables, you can use regular table operations over an environment table. For instance, to access the value of a global variable, do. When a C function is created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure ; these values are called upvalues and anthropological essays, are accessible to the function whenever it is called (see lua_pushcclosure ). Whenever a C function is called, its upvalues are located at specific pseudo-indices.
These pseudo-indices are produced by the macro lua_upvalueindex . The first value associated with a function is at concept paper research position lua_upvalueindex(1) , and so on. Any access to lua_upvalueindex( n ) , where n is greater than the number of cv writing service colchester, upvalues of the concept paper, current function (but not greater than 256), produces an acceptable (but invalid) index. Lua provides a registry , a pre-defined table that can be used by any C code to store whatever Lua value it needs to store. This table is always located at pseudo-index LUA_REGISTRYINDEX . Any C library can store data into this table, but it should take care to choose keys different from anthropological those used by other libraries, to avoid collisions. Typically, you should use as key a string containing your library name or a light userdata with the address of paper research, a C object in your code. The integer keys in three the registry are used by the reference mechanism, implemented by the auxiliary library, and therefore should not be used for other purposes. Internally, Lua uses the C longjmp facility to handle errors. Chem Concept Research? (You can also choose to use exceptions if you use C++; see file luaconf.h .) When Lua faces any error (such as memory allocation errors, type errors, syntax errors, and runtime errors) it raises an error; that is, it does a long jump. A protected environment uses setjmp to anthropological essays, set a recover point; any error jumps to the most recent active recover point.
Most functions in the API can throw an error, for instance due to a memory allocation error. The documentation for each function indicates whether it can throw errors. Inside a C function you can throw an error by calling lua_error . Here we list all functions and types from the C API in chem alphabetical order. Each function has an indicator like this: [-o, +p, x ] The first field, o , is how many elements the radio, function pops from the stack. The second field, p , is how many elements the function pushes onto the stack. (Any function always pushes its results after popping its arguments.) A field in chem paper the form x|y means the function can push (or pop) x or y elements, depending on the situation; an interrogation mark ' ? ' means that we cannot know how many elements the function pops/pushes by looking only at its arguments (e.g., they may depend on what is on the stack). The third field, x , tells whether the function may throw errors: ' - ' means the function never throws any error; ' m ' means the colchester, function may throw an error only due to not enough memory; ' e ' means the chem research, function may throw other kinds of errors; ' v ' means the function may throw an error on purpose. The type of the memory-allocation function used by Lua states.
The allocator function must provide a functionality similar to realloc , but not exactly the same. Its arguments are ud , an club harlem essays opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate ; ptr , a pointer to the block being allocated/reallocated/freed; osize , the chem paper research, original size of the block; nsize , the new size of the block. Essay? ptr is NULL if and only if osize is zero. When nsize is zero, the allocator must return NULL ; if osize is not zero, it should free the chem, block pointed to by ptr . When nsize is not zero, the allocator returns NULL if and only if it cannot fill the term paper, request. When nsize is not zero and osize is chem concept, zero, the allocator should behave like malloc . When nsize and osize are not zero, the allocator behaves like realloc . Lua assumes that the allocator never fails when osize = nsize . Here is to write essay, a simple implementation for chem concept paper, the allocator function. It is used in the auxiliary library by luaL_newstate . This code assumes that free(NULL) has no effect and essay, that realloc(NULL, size) is equivalent to malloc(size) . ANSI C ensures both behaviors. Sets a new panic function and paper research, returns the anthropological essays, old one. If an error happens outside any protected environment, Lua calls a panic function and then calls exit(EXIT_FAILURE) , thus exiting the host application. Your panic function can avoid this exit by never returning (e.g., doing a long jump). The panic function can access the error message at the top of the research, stack. Calls a function. To call a function you must use the following protocol: first, the function to essay health services, be called is pushed onto chem research the stack; then, the arguments to the function are pushed in direct order; that is, the first argument is pushed first.
Finally you call lua_call ; nargs is the number of arguments that you pushed onto the stack. All arguments and cv writing service, the function value are popped from the stack when the function is called. The function results are pushed onto the stack when the research, function returns. The number of results is adjusted to nresults , unless nresults is cotton harlem renaissance, LUA_MULTRET . In this case, all results from the concept research, function are pushed. Lua takes care that the returned values fit into cv writing service the stack space. The function results are pushed onto the stack in chem paper direct order (the first result is pushed first), so that after the call the last result is on the top of the stack. Any error inside the called function is propagated upwards (with a longjmp ).
The following example shows how the host program can do the essay, equivalent to this Lua code: Here it is in C: Note that the code above is chem research, balanced: at its end, the stack is back to its original configuration. This is considered good programming practice. Type for C functions. In order to communicate properly with Lua, a C function must use the following protocol, which defines the way parameters and results are passed: a C function receives its arguments from Lua in its stack in direct order (the first argument is pushed first). So, when the function starts, lua_gettop(L) returns the number of a definitional, arguments received by the function. The first argument (if any) is at index 1 and its last argument is at index lua_gettop(L) . To return values to Lua, a C function just pushes them onto the stack, in direct order (the first result is pushed first), and returns the number of chem, results. Cv Writing Service? Any other value in the stack below the results will be properly discarded by chem concept paper, Lua. Like a Lua function, a C function called by three, Lua can also return many results. As an example, the following function receives a variable number of chem concept, numerical arguments and returns their average and sum:
Ensures that there are at least extra free stack slots in the stack. It returns false if it cannot grow the stack to that size. This function never shrinks the stack; if the stack is already larger than the essays, new size, it is left unchanged. Destroys all objects in the given Lua state (calling the corresponding garbage-collection metamethods, if any) and frees all dynamic memory used by this state. On several platforms, you may not need to call this function, because all resources are naturally released when the host program ends. On the other hand, long-running programs, such as a daemon or a web server, might need to concept paper, release states as soon as they are not needed, to avoid growing too large. Concatenates the n values at to write essay the top of the stack, pops them, and research, leaves the result at the top. If n is 1, the cotton club essays, result is the single value on chem concept paper the stack (that is, the function does nothing); if n is 0, the result is the empty string. Concatenation is performed following the health, usual semantics of Lua (see §2.5.4). Calls the C function func in protected mode. func starts with only research, one element in its stack, a light userdata containing ud . In case of errors, lua_cpcall returns the same error codes as lua_pcall , plus the to write, error object on the top of the stack; otherwise, it returns zero, and does not change the stack.
All values returned by func are discarded. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto chem concept the stack. The new table has space pre-allocated for narr array elements and nrec non-array elements. This pre-allocation is three, useful when you know exactly how many elements the table will have. Paper Research? Otherwise you can use the function lua_newtable . Dumps a function as a binary chunk. Club Renaissance? Receives a Lua function on the top of the stack and chem research, produces a binary chunk that, if loaded again, results in a function equivalent to the one dumped. As it produces parts of the paper, chunk, lua_dump calls function writer (see lua_Writer ) with the given data to write them. The value returned is the chem paper research, error code returned by the last call to the writer; 0 means no errors.
This function does not pop the essay radio, Lua function from the chem research, stack. Returns 1 if the anthropological, two values in chem concept paper research acceptable indices index1 and index2 are equal, following the semantics of the on mental services, Lua == operator (that is, may call metamethods). Chem? Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid. Generates a Lua error. The error message (which can actually be a Lua value of any type) must be on the stack top. A Definitional? This function does a long jump, and therefore never returns. (see luaL_error ). Controls the garbage collector. This function performs several tasks, according to paper, the value of the parameter what : LUA_GCSTOP : stops the garbage collector. LUA_GCRESTART : restarts the essay, garbage collector. LUA_GCCOLLECT : performs a full garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCCOUNT : returns the current amount of memory (in Kbytes) in use by Lua.
LUA_GCCOUNTB : returns the remainder of concept research, dividing the current amount of a definitional essay, bytes of memory in use by Lua by chem concept research, 1024. Term Paper? LUA_GCSTEP : performs an incremental step of paper research, garbage collection. The step size is controlled by data (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of data . Cotton Club Essays? The function returns 1 if the step finished a garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCSETPAUSE : sets data as the new value for the pause of the concept paper, collector (see §2.10). The function returns the previous value of the pause. LUA_GCSETSTEPMUL : sets data as the new value for cv writing, the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10). The function returns the previous value of the step multiplier. Returns the memory-allocation function of a given state. If ud is not NULL , Lua stores in *ud the chem concept research, opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate . Pushes onto the stack the environment table of the value at the given index.
Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the anthropological, value at the given valid index. As in chem concept Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Pushes onto essays the stack the chem concept paper, value of the global name . It is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack the harlem essays, metatable of the value at the given acceptable index. If the index is not valid, or if the value does not have a metatable, the function returns 0 and pushes nothing on the stack. Pushes onto the stack the chem concept research, value t[k] , where t is the on mental, value at the given valid index and chem research, k is the essay radio three, value at the top of the stack.
This function pops the key from the stack (putting the resulting value in its place). As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Returns the index of the top element in the stack. Because indices start at 1, this result is equal to the number of concept paper, elements in essay radio the stack (and so 0 means an empty stack). Moves the chem research, top element into the given valid index, shifting up the elements above this index to open space. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is harlem essays, not an actual stack position. The type used by the Lua API to represent integral values.
By default it is a ptrdiff_t , which is usually the concept paper research, largest signed integral type the essay on mental health, machine handles comfortably. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index has type boolean, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a C function, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is concept, a function (either C or Lua), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a light userdata, and 0 otherwise.
Returns 1 if the cv writing, value at the given acceptable index is nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the chem concept, given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to anthropological essays, an element outside the current stack), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the chem paper, given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the current stack) or if the value at this index is nil , and cotton club essays, 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is chem concept paper research, a number or a string convertible to a number, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a string or a number (which is always convertible to a string), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at harlem renaissance the given acceptable index is a table, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the chem concept, value at the given acceptable index is a thread, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a userdata (either full or light), and service colchester, 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the chem research, value at acceptable index index1 is smaller than the value at cv writing service acceptable index index2 , following the semantics of the Lua operator (that is, may call metamethods).
Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid. Loads a Lua chunk. If there are no errors, lua_load pushes the compiled chunk as a Lua function on top of the chem, stack. Otherwise, it pushes an error message. The return values of lua_load are: 0: no errors; LUA_ERRSYNTAX : syntax error during pre-compilation; LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. This function only loads a chunk; it does not run it. lua_load automatically detects whether the chunk is text or binary, and to write a definitional essay, loads it accordingly (see program luac ). The lua_load function uses a user-supplied reader function to paper research, read the cv writing, chunk (see lua_Reader ). Chem? The data argument is an opaque value passed to the reader function. The chunkname argument gives a name to the chunk, which is used for essay three, error messages and in debug information (see §3.8). Creates a new, independent state. Chem Concept? Returns NULL if cannot create the state (due to lack of term, memory).
The argument f is the allocator function; Lua does all memory allocation for chem concept paper research, this state through this function. The second argument, ud , is an opaque pointer that Lua simply passes to the allocator in every call. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. It is equivalent to lua_createtable(L, 0, 0) . Creates a new thread, pushes it on the stack, and returns a pointer to radio three, a lua_State that represents this new thread. The new state returned by this function shares with the original state all global objects (such as tables), but has an independent execution stack. There is no explicit function to close or to paper, destroy a thread. Threads are subject to garbage collection, like any Lua object.
This function allocates a new block of cv writing service, memory with the paper research, given size, pushes onto the stack a new full userdata with the block address, and six sigma, returns this address. Userdata represent C values in Lua. A full userdata represents a block of memory. It is an object (like a table): you must create it, it can have its own metatable, and you can detect when it is being collected. A full userdata is only equal to itself (under raw equality). When Lua collects a full userdata with a gc metamethod, Lua calls the metamethod and marks the userdata as finalized. When this userdata is chem paper research, collected again then Lua frees its corresponding memory. Pops a key from the stack, and essays, pushes a key-value pair from the table at the given index (the next pair after the given key). Paper Research? If there are no more elements in the table, then lua_next returns 0 (and pushes nothing).
A typical traversal looks like this: While traversing a table, do not call lua_tolstring directly on a key, unless you know that the term, key is concept research, actually a string. Recall that lua_tolstring changes the value at the given index; this confuses the essays, next call to lua_next . The type of numbers in Lua. By default, it is double, but that can be changed in luaconf.h . Through the configuration file you can change Lua to operate with another type for chem concept paper, numbers (e.g., float or long). Returns the length of the to write a definitional, value at the given acceptable index: for strings, this is the string length; for paper, tables, this is the result of the length operator (' # '); for userdata, this is the size of the block of memory allocated for the userdata; for other values, it is 0. Calls a function in colchester protected mode. Both nargs and nresults have the same meaning as in lua_call . Chem Concept Research? If there are no errors during the call, lua_pcall behaves exactly like lua_call . However, if there is any error, lua_pcall catches it, pushes a single value on the stack (the error message), and returns an error code. Like lua_call , lua_pcall always removes the anthropological essays, function and its arguments from the stack.
If errfunc is 0, then the error message returned on the stack is exactly the original error message. Chem Concept? Otherwise, errfunc is the stack index of an six sigma term paper error handler function . (In the current implementation, this index cannot be a pseudo-index.) In case of runtime errors, this function will be called with the error message and its return value will be the message returned on the stack by chem, lua_pcall . Typically, the error handler function is used to add more debug information to the error message, such as a stack traceback. Such information cannot be gathered after the return of lua_pcall , since by then the stack has unwound. The lua_pcall function returns 0 in cotton club harlem case of concept, success or one of the essay radio three, following error codes (defined in lua.h ): LUA_ERRRUN : a runtime error. LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. For such errors, Lua does not call the error handler function. LUA_ERRERR : error while running the error handler function. Pops n elements from the stack.
Pushes a boolean value with value b onto the stack. Pushes a new C closure onto concept the stack. When a C function is created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see §3.4); these values are then accessible to the function whenever it is called. To associate values with a C function, first these values should be pushed onto the stack (when there are multiple values, the first value is pushed first). Then lua_pushcclosure is called to create and push the C function onto the stack, with the argument n telling how many values should be associated with the function. Essay On Mental Health Services? lua_pushcclosure also pops these values from the stack. The maximum value for n is 255.
Pushes a C function onto the stack. This function receives a pointer to a C function and research, pushes onto the stack a Lua value of type function that, when called, invokes the essay radio, corresponding C function. Any function to chem concept paper research, be registered in Lua must follow the correct protocol to receive its parameters and return its results (see lua_CFunction ). lua_pushcfunction is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack a formatted string and returns a pointer to this string. It is similar to the C function sprintf , but has some important differences: You do not have to allocate space for the result: the result is a Lua string and Lua takes care of memory allocation (and deallocation, through garbage collection). The conversion specifiers are quite restricted. There are no flags, widths, or precisions. The conversion specifiers can only be ' %% ' (inserts a ' % ' in the string), ' %s ' (inserts a zero-terminated string, with no size restrictions), ' %f ' (inserts a lua_Number ), ' %p ' (inserts a pointer as a hexadecimal numeral), ' %d ' (inserts an int ), and harlem essays, ' %c ' (inserts an int as a character).
Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes a light userdata onto chem the stack. Userdata represent C values in Lua. A light userdata represents a pointer. It is a value (like a number): you do not create it, it has no individual metatable, and it is cotton harlem renaissance essays, not collected (as it was never created). A light userdata is equal to any light userdata with the same C address. This macro is equivalent to lua_pushlstring , but can be used only when s is a literal string. Chem Research? In these cases, it automatically provides the string length. Pushes the a definitional, string pointed to by s with size len onto the stack.
Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at chem concept paper s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string can contain embedded zeros. Pushes a nil value onto the stack. Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes the zero-terminated string pointed to by s onto the stack. Club? Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the chem, given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string cannot contain embedded zeros; it is assumed to end at cv writing service colchester the first zero.
Pushes the thread represented by L onto the stack. Returns 1 if this thread is the main thread of chem paper, its state. Pushes a copy of the element at the given valid index onto the stack. Equivalent to lua_pushfstring , except that it receives a va_list instead of a variable number of arguments. Returns 1 if the two values in acceptable indices index1 and index2 are primitively equal (that is, without calling metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices are non valid.
Similar to anthropological, lua_gettable , but does a raw access (i.e., without metamethods). Pushes onto the stack the chem paper research, value t[n] , where t is the value at the given valid index. The access is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Similar to six sigma term paper, lua_settable , but does a raw assignment (i.e., without metamethods). Does the equivalent of t[n] = v , where t is the value at chem paper research the given valid index and v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the radio three, stack. The assignment is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. The reader function used by lua_load . Every time it needs another piece of the chunk, lua_load calls the reader, passing along its data parameter. The reader must return a pointer to a block of memory with a new piece of the chunk and set size to the block size. Concept? The block must exist until the anthropological, reader function is called again.
To signal the end of the chunk, the reader must return NULL or set size to chem, zero. The reader function may return pieces of any size greater than zero. Sets the cv writing, C function f as the new value of global name . Chem Concept? It is defined as a macro: Removes the element at to write essay the given valid index, shifting down the elements above this index to fill the concept paper, gap. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position. Moves the top element into the given position (and pops it), without shifting any element (therefore replacing the value at the given position).
Starts and resumes a coroutine in a given thread. To start a coroutine, you first create a new thread (see lua_newthread ); then you push onto its stack the main function plus any arguments; then you call lua_resume , with narg being the a definitional essay, number of arguments. This call returns when the coroutine suspends or finishes its execution. When it returns, the stack contains all values passed to lua_yield , or all values returned by the body function. lua_resume returns LUA_YIELD if the coroutine yields, 0 if the coroutine finishes its execution without errors, or an error code in case of errors (see lua_pcall ). In case of errors, the stack is concept, not unwound, so you can use the debug API over it. The error message is on the top of the stack. To restart a coroutine, you put on its stack only the values to be passed as results from yield , and then call lua_resume . Changes the allocator function of a given state to six sigma, f with user data ud . Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the new environment for the value at the given index. If the value at chem concept paper research the given index is neither a function nor a thread nor a userdata, lua_setfenv returns 0. Otherwise it returns 1. Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and essays, v is the value at the top of the stack.
This function pops the value from the stack. Research? As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for to write, the newindex event (see §2.8). Pops a value from the stack and sets it as the new value of global name . It is defined as a macro: Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the new metatable for the value at the given acceptable index. Does the concept, equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the a definitional essay, value at the given valid index, v is the value at the top of the stack, and k is the value just below the top.
This function pops both the key and the value from the stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8). Accepts any acceptable index, or 0, and sets the stack top to research, this index. If the new top is to write a definitional essay, larger than the old one, then the new elements are filled with nil . If index is 0, then all stack elements are removed. Opaque structure that keeps the whole state of a Lua interpreter. The Lua library is fully reentrant: it has no global variables. All information about a state is kept in paper this structure. A pointer to to write, this state must be passed as the first argument to every function in the library, except to lua_newstate , which creates a Lua state from scratch. Returns the status of the thread L . The status can be 0 for a normal thread, an paper error code if the thread finished its execution with an error, or LUA_YIELD if the thread is suspended. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C boolean value (0 or 1).
Like all tests in Lua, lua_toboolean returns 1 for to write, any Lua value different from false and nil ; otherwise it returns 0. It also returns 0 when called with a non-valid index. (If you want to accept only actual boolean values, use lua_isboolean to test the value's type.) Converts a value at the given acceptable index to a C function. Chem Concept? That value must be a C function; otherwise, returns NULL . Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to the signed integral type lua_Integer . The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tointeger returns 0. If the number is not an integer, it is truncated in some non-specified way. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C string. If len is not NULL , it also sets *len with the string length. Anthropological? The Lua value must be a string or a number; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the value is chem paper, a number, then lua_tolstring also changes the actual value in the stack to a string . Six Sigma Paper? (This change confuses lua_next when lua_tolstring is applied to keys during a table traversal.) lua_tolstring returns a fully aligned pointer to a string inside the Lua state. This string always has a zero (' 0 ') after its last character (as in C), but can contain other zeros in its body. Because Lua has garbage collection, there is no guarantee that the pointer returned by lua_tolstring will be valid after the corresponding value is removed from the stack. Converts the research, Lua value at the given acceptable index to the C type lua_Number (see lua_Number ). Harlem Renaissance? The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tonumber returns 0. Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a generic C pointer ( void* ). The value can be a userdata, a table, a thread, or a function; otherwise, lua_topointer returns NULL . Different objects will give different pointers.
There is no way to convert the pointer back to its original value. Typically this function is paper research, used only for health, debug information. Equivalent to lua_tolstring with len equal to NULL . Converts the value at chem the given acceptable index to a Lua thread (represented as lua_State* ). This value must be a thread; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the value at the given acceptable index is essay radio three, a full userdata, returns its block address. If the value is paper research, a light userdata, returns its pointer. Club Harlem Essays? Otherwise, returns NULL . Returns the type of the chem, value in essays the given acceptable index, or LUA_TNONE for a non-valid index (that is, an index to an empty stack position). The types returned by lua_type are coded by the following constants defined in chem concept research lua.h : LUA_TNIL , LUA_TNUMBER , LUA_TBOOLEAN , LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , LUA_TTHREAD , and LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA . Returns the name of the type encoded by the value tp , which must be one the values returned by lua_type . The type of the writer function used by lua_dump . Every time it produces another piece of chunk, lua_dump calls the writer, passing along the buffer to be written ( p ), its size ( sz ), and the data parameter supplied to to write, lua_dump . The writer returns an error code: 0 means no errors; any other value means an error and stops lua_dump from calling the writer again.
Exchange values between different threads of the same global state. This function pops n values from the stack from , and pushes them onto the stack to concept, . Yields a coroutine. This function should only be called as the return expression of paper, a C function, as follows: When a C function calls lua_yield in that way, the running coroutine suspends its execution, and the call to lua_resume that started this coroutine returns. The parameter nresults is the number of values from the stack that are passed as results to lua_resume . Lua has no built-in debugging facilities. Instead, it offers a special interface by chem concept paper, means of functions and hooks . This interface allows the construction of different kinds of debuggers, profilers, and other tools that need inside information from the interpreter. A structure used to carry different pieces of information about an active function. lua_getstack fills only the private part of six sigma term, this structure, for later use. To fill the other fields of lua_Debug with useful information, call lua_getinfo . The fields of lua_Debug have the following meaning: source : If the function was defined in a string, then source is that string. If the function was defined in a file, then source starts with a ' @ ' followed by the file name. short_src : a printable version of concept paper, source , to be used in error messages. linedefined : the harlem renaissance essays, line number where the definition of the function starts. lastlinedefined : the line number where the definition of the function ends. Concept Research? what : the string Lua if the cv writing colchester, function is chem concept research, a Lua function, C if it is cv writing service, a C function, main if it is the main part of a chunk, and tail if it was a function that did a tail call.
In the latter case, Lua has no other information about the function. currentline : the current line where the given function is chem, executing. When no line information is available, currentline is essays, set to -1. name : a reasonable name for the given function. Because functions in Lua are first-class values, they do not have a fixed name: some functions can be the value of multiple global variables, while others can be stored only in a table field. The lua_getinfo function checks how the function was called to find a suitable name. Concept Paper? If it cannot find a name, then name is set to NULL . namewhat : explains the name field. The value of namewhat can be global , local , method , field , upvalue , or (the empty string), according to how the service, function was called. Chem Research? (Lua uses the empty string when no other option seems to apply.) nups : the number of upvalues of the function. Returns the current hook function. Returns the essays, current hook count. Returns the current hook mask. Returns information about a specific function or function invocation.
To get information about a function invocation, the parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). To get information about a function you push it onto the stack and start the what string with the character ' '. (In that case, lua_getinfo pops the function in chem concept paper research the top of the stack.) For instance, to know in which line a function f was defined, you can write the following code: Each character in the string what selects some fields of the structure ar to be filled or a value to be pushed on the stack: ' n ': fills in the field name and namewhat ; ' S ': fills in the fields source , short_src , linedefined , lastlinedefined , and what ; ' l ': fills in the field currentline ; ' u ': fills in the field nups ; ' f ': pushes onto essay on mental the stack the function that is running at the given level; ' L ': pushes onto the stack a table whose indices are the chem concept paper research, numbers of the lines that are valid on the function. (A valid line is a line with some associated code, that is, a line where you can put a break point. Non-valid lines include empty lines and comments.) This function returns 0 on error (for instance, an invalid option in what ). Gets information about a local variable of a given activation record.
The parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). The index n selects which local variable to essay on mental health, inspect (1 is the first parameter or active local variable, and so on, until the last active local variable). lua_getlocal pushes the variable's value onto paper the stack and returns its name. Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the on mental services, number of active local variables. Get information about the interpreter runtime stack. This function fills parts of a lua_Debug structure with an concept research identification of the activation record of the function executing at a given level. Level 0 is the a definitional, current running function, whereas level n+1 is the function that has called level n . When there are no errors, lua_getstack returns 1; when called with a level greater than the stack depth, it returns 0. Gets information about a closure's upvalue. (For Lua functions, upvalues are the external local variables that the function uses, and that are consequently included in its closure.) lua_getupvalue gets the chem concept paper, index n of an upvalue, pushes the upvalue's value onto the stack, and returns its name. funcindex points to the closure in the stack. Term Paper? (Upvalues have no particular order, as they are active through the whole function.
So, they are numbered in an arbitrary order.) Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of upvalues. For C functions, this function uses the chem paper research, empty string as a name for services, all upvalues. Type for debugging hook functions. Whenever a hook is called, its ar argument has its field event set to the specific event that triggered the hook. Lua identifies these events with the following constants: LUA_HOOKCALL , LUA_HOOKRET , LUA_HOOKTAILRET , LUA_HOOKLINE , and LUA_HOOKCOUNT . Moreover, for line events, the field currentline is concept research, also set.
To get the value of any other field in ar , the hook must call lua_getinfo . For return events, event can be LUA_HOOKRET , the normal value, or LUA_HOOKTAILRET . In the cotton harlem renaissance, latter case, Lua is simulating a return from chem paper research a function that did a tail call; in this case, it is essays, useless to call lua_getinfo . While Lua is running a hook, it disables other calls to hooks. Therefore, if a hook calls back Lua to concept paper, execute a function or a chunk, this execution occurs without any calls to hooks. Sets the debugging hook function. Argument f is the hook function. Radio? mask specifies on chem paper research which events the hook will be called: it is formed by renaissance, a bitwise or of the constants LUA_MASKCALL , LUA_MASKRET , LUA_MASKLINE , and LUA_MASKCOUNT . The count argument is only meaningful when the mask includes LUA_MASKCOUNT . For each event, the hook is called as explained below: The call hook: is called when the interpreter calls a function. The hook is called just after Lua enters the new function, before the function gets its arguments. The return hook: is called when the chem concept research, interpreter returns from a function. Radio? The hook is called just before Lua leaves the function.
You have no access to the values to be returned by concept research, the function. The line hook: is service, called when the interpreter is about to start the execution of a new line of chem concept paper, code, or when it jumps back in the code (even to the same line). (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) The count hook: is called after the interpreter executes every count instructions. (This event only happens while Lua is to write a definitional, executing a Lua function.) A hook is disabled by setting mask to zero. Sets the value of a local variable of a given activation record. Parameters ar and n are as in lua_getlocal (see lua_getlocal ). lua_setlocal assigns the value at chem concept paper the top of the stack to the variable and returns its name. It also pops the cv writing colchester, value from the stack. Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the concept paper, index is greater than the number of active local variables. Sets the value of a closure's upvalue. Six Sigma Paper? It assigns the value at the top of the stack to paper, the upvalue and returns its name. It also pops the value from the stack. Parameters funcindex and essays, n are as in the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ).
Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the concept paper, index is anthropological, greater than the number of upvalues. The auxiliary library provides several convenient functions to interface C with Lua. While the basic API provides the primitive functions for all interactions between C and Lua, the auxiliary library provides higher-level functions for some common tasks. All functions from the auxiliary library are defined in header file lauxlib.h and have a prefix luaL_ . All functions in the auxiliary library are built on top of the basic API, and so they provide nothing that cannot be done with this API. Several functions in the auxiliary library are used to chem, check C function arguments. Their names are always luaL_check* or luaL_opt* . Six Sigma Term? All of these functions throw an error if the check is not satisfied.
Because the paper, error message is formatted for arguments (e.g., bad argument #1 ), you should not use these functions for other stack values. Here we list all functions and types from the auxiliary library in alphabetical order. Adds the character c to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Adds the string pointed to by s with length l to anthropological essays, the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may contain embedded zeros. Adds to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ) a string of length n previously copied to the buffer area (see luaL_prepbuffer ). Adds the zero-terminated string pointed to by s to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may not contain embedded zeros. Adds the chem concept, value at the top of the to write a definitional, stack to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Pops the value. This is the only function on chem paper research string buffers that can (and must) be called with an extra element on the stack, which is the paper, value to be added to the buffer. Checks whether cond is true.
If not, raises an error with the concept research, following message, where func is retrieved from the renaissance essays, call stack: Raises an error with the following message, where func is retrieved from the call stack: This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in chem paper C functions as return luaL_argerror( args ) . Type for a string buffer . A string buffer allows C code to build Lua strings piecemeal. Its pattern of use is as follows: First you declare a variable b of type luaL_Buffer . Then you initialize it with a call luaL_buffinit(L, b) . Then you add string pieces to the buffer calling any of the luaL_add* functions. You finish by calling luaL_pushresult(b) . Essay Three? This call leaves the final string on chem the top of the stack. During its normal operation, a string buffer uses a variable number of stack slots. So, while using a buffer, you cannot assume that you know where the top of the stack is.
You can use the stack between successive calls to buffer operations as long as that use is balanced; that is, when you call a buffer operation, the stack is at the same level it was immediately after the previous buffer operation. (The only exception to this rule is luaL_addvalue .) After calling luaL_pushresult the essay radio, stack is concept paper research, back to its level when the buffer was initialized, plus the final string on its top. Initializes a buffer B . This function does not allocate any space; the buffer must be declared as a variable (see luaL_Buffer ). Calls a metamethod. If the object at index obj has a metatable and this metatable has a field e , this function calls this field and passes the object as its only argument. In this case this function returns 1 and to write, pushes onto the stack the value returned by the call. If there is no metatable or no metamethod, this function returns 0 (without pushing any value on concept the stack).
Checks whether the function has an argument of any type (including nil ) at essay on mental services position narg . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to chem research, an int . Checks whether the cv writing service colchester, function argument narg is paper research, a number and returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to a long . Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and returns this string; if l is not NULL fills *l with the string's length. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number. Checks whether the function argument narg is cotton club essays, a string and searches for this string in the array lst (which must be NULL-terminated). Returns the index in the array where the string was found. Chem Paper? Raises an error if the argument is not a string or if the radio, string cannot be found. If def is not NULL , the function uses def as a default value when there is chem paper research, no argument narg or if this argument is nil . This is a useful function for mapping strings to C enums. (The usual convention in a definitional essay Lua libraries is to use strings instead of numbers to select options.)
Grows the stack size to top + sz elements, raising an error if the stack cannot grow to concept paper research, that size. msg is an additional text to go into the error message. Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and returns this string. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and cv writing service, caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg has type t . See lua_type for paper research, the encoding of types for colchester, t . Checks whether the function argument narg is paper, a userdata of the type tname (see luaL_newmetatable ). Loads and runs the given file.
It is to write, defined as the chem concept, following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of errors. Loads and cv writing service, runs the given string. It is defined as the following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of concept paper research, errors. Raises an error. The error message format is anthropological, given by fmt plus any extra arguments, following the same rules of lua_pushfstring . It also adds at the beginning of the message the file name and research, the line number where the error occurred, if this information is essay three, available. This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_error( args ) . Pushes onto chem paper the stack the field e from the metatable of the a definitional, object at index obj . Chem? If the object does not have a metatable, or if the metatable does not have this field, returns 0 and pushes nothing.
Pushes onto the stack the metatable associated with name tname in the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ). Creates a copy of string s by replacing any occurrence of the string p with the string r . To Write A Definitional? Pushes the resulting string on the stack and returns it. Loads a buffer as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the buffer pointed to by buff with size sz . This function returns the same results as lua_load . Paper? name is the chunk name, used for debug information and error messages. Loads a file as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the file named filename . If filename is NULL , then it loads from the standard input. The first line in cotton renaissance the file is chem concept paper research, ignored if it starts with a # . This function returns the same results as lua_load , but it has an extra error code LUA_ERRFILE if it cannot open/read the file. As lua_load , this function only loads the anthropological, chunk; it does not run it. Loads a string as a Lua chunk. Paper? This function uses lua_load to three, load the chunk in the zero-terminated string s . This function returns the paper, same results as lua_load . Also as lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. If the registry already has the key tname , returns 0. Otherwise, creates a new table to be used as a metatable for userdata, adds it to the registry with key tname , and returns 1.
In both cases pushes onto the stack the six sigma, final value associated with tname in the registry. Creates a new Lua state. It calls lua_newstate with an chem concept paper allocator based on the standard C realloc function and then sets a panic function (see lua_atpanic ) that prints an error message to the standard error output in case of anthropological, fatal errors. Returns the new state, or NULL if there is a memory allocation error. Opens all standard Lua libraries into the given state. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to an int . If this argument is research, absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an essay three error. If the concept research, function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to anthropological essays, a lua_Integer . If this argument is absent or is chem concept research, nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an anthropological error. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to a long . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a string, returns this string. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error.
If l is not NULL , fills the position *l with the results's length. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an concept research error. If the function argument narg is a string, returns this string. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an to write a definitional essay error. Returns an address to a space of size LUAL_BUFFERSIZE where you can copy a string to be added to research, buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). To Write A Definitional? After copying the string into this space you must call luaL_addsize with the size of the string to concept research, actually add it to the buffer. Finishes the use of buffer B leaving the final string on the top of the stack.
Creates and returns a reference , in the table at six sigma term index t , for the object at the top of the stack (and pops the object). A reference is a unique integer key. As long as you do not manually add integer keys into table t , luaL_ref ensures the uniqueness of the key it returns. You can retrieve an object referred by reference r by calling lua_rawgeti(L, t, r) . Chem Concept Research? Function luaL_unref frees a reference and its associated object. If the object at the top of the stack is nil , luaL_ref returns the constant LUA_REFNIL . The constant LUA_NOREF is guaranteed to essay services, be different from any reference returned by luaL_ref . Type for arrays of functions to be registered by luaL_register . Paper Research? name is the function name and func is essays, a pointer to the function. Any array of research, luaL_Reg must end with an sentinel entry in which both name and func are NULL . Opens a library.
When called with libname equal to NULL , it simply registers all functions in the list l (see luaL_Reg ) into on mental health services the table on the top of the stack. When called with a non-null libname , luaL_register creates a new table t , sets it as the value of the global variable libname , sets it as the value of package.loaded[libname] , and registers on it all functions in chem concept paper research the list l . If there is a definitional, a table in package.loaded[libname] or in variable libname , reuses this table instead of creating a new one. In any case the function leaves the table on the top of the stack. Returns the name of the type of the value at the given index. Generates an error with a message like the following: where location is produced by luaL_where , func is the research, name of the current function, and rt is the type name of the actual argument. Releases reference ref from the table at index t (see luaL_ref ). To Write Essay? The entry is research, removed from the table, so that the referred object can be collected. The reference ref is also freed to anthropological, be used again. Pushes onto the stack a string identifying the current position of the control at concept level lvl in the call stack. Typically this string has the following format:
Level 0 is the running function, level 1 is the function that called the running function, etc. This function is used to build a prefix for error messages. The standard Lua libraries provide useful functions that are implemented directly through the C API. Some of these functions provide essential services to the language (e.g., type and getmetatable ); others provide access to outside services (e.g., I/O); and club renaissance essays, others could be implemented in Lua itself, but are quite useful or have critical performance requirements that deserve an implementation in C (e.g., table.sort ). All libraries are implemented through the official C API and concept research, are provided as separate C modules. Essay? Currently, Lua has the following standard libraries: basic library, which includes the coroutine sub-library; package library; string manipulation; table manipulation; mathematical functions (sin, log, etc.); input and output; operating system facilities; debug facilities.
Except for the basic and package libraries, each library provides all its functions as fields of a global table or as methods of its objects. To have access to these libraries, the C host program should call the luaL_openlibs function, which opens all standard libraries. Chem Research? Alternatively, it can open them individually by calling luaopen_base (for the basic library), luaopen_package (for the package library), luaopen_string (for the string library), luaopen_table (for the table library), luaopen_math (for the mathematical library), luaopen_io (for the I/O library), luaopen_os (for the Operating System library), and luaopen_debug (for the club harlem, debug library). These functions are declared in lualib.h and should not be called directly: you must call them like any other Lua C function, e.g., by using lua_call . The basic library provides some core functions to Lua. If you do not include this library in your application, you should check carefully whether you need to provide implementations for some of chem concept paper research, its facilities.
This function is essay radio three, a generic interface to the garbage collector. Concept Paper Research? It performs different functions according to anthropological essays, its first argument, opt : collect: performs a full garbage-collection cycle. This is the research, default option. stop: stops the garbage collector. restart: restarts the garbage collector. count: returns the total memory in use by anthropological, Lua (in Kbytes). step: performs a garbage-collection step. The step size is controlled by research, arg (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. Cv Writing Colchester? If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of arg . Returns true if the chem paper, step finished a collection cycle. setpause: sets arg as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). Returns the previous value for pause . setstepmul: sets arg as the new value for cotton club harlem renaissance, the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10). Chem Paper Research? Returns the previous value for step . Usually, error adds some information about the essay radio, error position at the beginning of the message. The level argument specifies how to chem concept paper research, get the error position. With level 1 (the default), the cotton harlem essays, error position is where the research, error function was called. Level 2 points the error to where the function that called error was called; and so on. Passing a level 0 avoids the addition of essay radio, error position information to the message.
If object does not have a metatable, returns nil . Otherwise, if the object's metatable has a __metatable field, returns the chem research, associated value. Otherwise, returns the metatable of the given object. Returns three values: an iterator function, the table t , and service colchester, 0, so that the construction. will iterate over the pairs ( 1,t ), ( 2,t ), ···, up to the first integer key absent from the table. Loads a chunk using function func to get its pieces.
Each call to func must return a string that concatenates with previous results. A return of an empty string, nil , or no value signals the end of the chunk. If there are no errors, returns the compiled chunk as a function; otherwise, returns nil plus the error message. The environment of the chem paper research, returned function is the global environment. chunkname is anthropological essays, used as the chunk name for error messages and debug information. When absent, it defaults to =(load) . Similar to load , but gets the chunk from file filename or from the standard input, if no file name is given. Similar to load , but gets the concept research, chunk from the given string. To load and run a given string, use the idiom. When absent, chunkname defaults to the given string. Allows a program to traverse all fields of a table.
Its first argument is a table and its second argument is an index in this table. next returns the next index of the table and paper, its associated value. When called with nil as its second argument, next returns an initial index and its associated value. Chem Research? When called with the essays, last index, or with nil in an empty table, next returns nil . If the second argument is absent, then it is interpreted as nil . In particular, you can use next(t) to chem paper research, check whether a table is empty. The order in which the indices are enumerated is not specified, even for cotton club, numeric indices . (To traverse a table in numeric order, use a numerical for or the concept research, ipairs function.) The behavior of next is undefined if, during the traversal, you assign any value to a non-existent field in the table.
You may however modify existing fields. In particular, you may clear existing fields. Returns three values: the six sigma, next function, the table t , and nil , so that the chem concept paper, construction. will iterate over all keyvalue pairs of table t . See function next for the caveats of modifying the table during its traversal. Calls function f with the given arguments in protected mode . Club Harlem Renaissance Essays? This means that any error inside f is not propagated; instead, pcall catches the error and returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors. In such case, pcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of chem concept paper research, any error, pcall returns false plus the error message. This function returns table . If index is a number, returns all arguments after argument number index . Otherwise, index must be the string # , and select returns the total number of extra arguments it received. Sets the environment to be used by the given function. f can be a Lua function or a number that specifies the function at that stack level: Level 1 is the function calling setfenv . setfenv returns the term paper, given function. As a special case, when f is 0 setfenv changes the environment of the running thread.
In this case, setfenv returns no values. Sets the metatable for the given table. (You cannot change the chem concept paper research, metatable of other types from Lua, only from C.) If metatable is nil , removes the service, metatable of the given table. If the original metatable has a __metatable field, raises an concept research error. This function returns table . An optional argument specifies the base to interpret the numeral. The base may be any integer between 2 and 36, inclusive.
In bases above 10, the letter ' A ' (in either upper or lower case) represents 10, ' B ' represents 11, and so forth, with ' Z ' representing 35. In base 10 (the default), the to write, number can have a decimal part, as well as an concept optional exponent part (see §2.1). In other bases, only unsigned integers are accepted. If the essay, metatable of paper research, e has a __tostring field, then tostring calls the corresponding value with e as argument, and uses the result of the call as its result. except that the above code can be written only for a fixed number of elements. By default, i is 1 and a definitional essay, j is the length of the list, as defined by the length operator (see §2.5.5).
This function is similar to pcall , except that you can set a new error handler. xpcall calls function f in protected mode, using err as the error handler. Any error inside f is not propagated; instead, xpcall catches the error, calls the err function with the original error object, and returns a status code. Its first result is the chem paper, status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors. In this case, xpcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of any error, xpcall returns false plus the result from err . The operations related to club harlem, coroutines comprise a sub-library of the basic library and come inside the table coroutine . Chem Research? See §2.11 for a general description of coroutines. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function.
Returns this new coroutine, an object with type thread . Starts or continues the execution of coroutine co . The first time you resume a coroutine, it starts running its body. The values val1 , ··· are passed as the arguments to the body function. If the coroutine has yielded, resume restarts it; the values val1 , ··· are passed as the results from the cv writing, yield. If the coroutine runs without any errors, resume returns true plus any values passed to yield (if the coroutine yields) or any values returned by the body function (if the coroutine terminates). If there is any error, resume returns false plus the error message. Returns the research, running coroutine, or nil when called by the main thread. Returns the status of coroutine co , as a string: running , if the coroutine is running (that is, it called status ); suspended , if the coroutine is six sigma paper, suspended in a call to yield , or if it has not started running yet; normal if the coroutine is active but not running (that is, it has resumed another coroutine); and dead if the chem concept research, coroutine has finished its body function, or if it has stopped with an harlem error. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns a function that resumes the coroutine each time it is called. Any arguments passed to concept research, the function behave as the anthropological essays, extra arguments to resume . Returns the concept research, same values returned by resume , except the first boolean. Anthropological Essays? In case of error, propagates the error.
Suspends the chem research, execution of the calling coroutine. The coroutine cannot be running a C function, a metamethod, or an iterator. Any arguments to yield are passed as extra results to resume . The package library provides basic facilities for loading and building modules in Lua. Term? It exports two of chem paper, its functions directly in the global environment: require and module . Everything else is exported in a table package . Creates a module. On Mental Services? If there is a table in chem research package.loaded[name] , this table is the term, module. Concept Research? Otherwise, if there is a global table t with the given name, this table is the module.
Otherwise creates a new table t and colchester, sets it as the concept, value of the global name and the value of package.loaded[name] . Paper? This function also initializes t._NAME with the given name, t._M with the module ( t itself), and concept paper research, t._PACKAGE with the package name (the full module name minus last component; see below). Finally, module sets t as the new environment of the current function and the new value of package.loaded[name] , so that require returns t . If name is a compound name (that is, one with components separated by dots), module creates (or reuses, if they already exist) tables for each component. For instance, if name is anthropological, a.b.c , then module stores the module table in field c of research, field b of cotton club harlem essays, global a . This function can receive optional options after the module name, where each option is a function to be applied over the module. Loads the given module. The function starts by looking into the package.loaded table to determine whether modname is already loaded. If it is, then require returns the value stored at package.loaded[modname] . Otherwise, it tries to find a loader for the module. To find a loader, require is guided by the package.loaders array. By changing this array, we can change how require looks for a module. The following explanation is chem concept paper research, based on the default configuration for package.loaders . First require queries package.preload[modname] . If it has a value, this value (which should be a function) is the loader. Otherwise require searches for a Lua loader using the path stored in six sigma term paper package.path . Concept? If that also fails, it searches for essay services, a C loader using the concept paper research, path stored in package.cpath . If that also fails, it tries an all-in-one loader (see package.loaders ).
Once a loader is found, require calls the loader with a single argument, modname . If the loader returns any value, require assigns the returned value to package.loaded[modname] . If the cv writing, loader returns no value and has not assigned any value to package.loaded[modname] , then require assigns true to this entry. In any case, require returns the final value of package.loaded[modname] . If there is any error loading or running the module, or if it cannot find any loader for the module, then require signals an error. The path used by require to search for a C loader. Lua initializes the chem concept, C path package.cpath in the same way it initializes the Lua path package.path , using the environment variable LUA_CPATH or a default path defined in luaconf.h . A table used by require to control which modules are already loaded. Cotton Club? When you require a module modname and paper, package.loaded[modname] is not false, require simply returns the value stored there.
A table used by a definitional, require to research, control how to load modules. Each entry in anthropological this table is a searcher function . When looking for a module, require calls each of these searchers in ascending order, with the module name (the argument given to require ) as its sole parameter. The function can return another function (the module loader ) or a string explaining why it did not find that module (or nil if it has nothing to concept paper, say). Lua initializes this table with four functions. The first searcher simply looks for a loader in the package.preload table. The second searcher looks for a loader as a Lua library, using the path stored at package.path . A path is a sequence of six sigma paper, templates separated by chem concept paper research, semicolons. For each template, the searcher will change each interrogation mark in the template by filename , which is the module name with each dot replaced by a directory separator (such as / in Unix); then it will try to open the resulting file name.
So, for instance, if the Lua path is the six sigma, string. the search for a Lua file for paper research, module foo will try to open the files ./foo.lua , ./foo.lc , and term paper, /usr/local/foo/init.lua , in that order. The third searcher looks for a loader as a C library, using the path given by the variable package.cpath . For instance, if the chem paper research, C path is the string. the searcher for module foo will try to open the files ./foo.so , ./foo.dll , and /usr/local/foo/init.so , in cotton club harlem essays that order. Once it finds a C library, this searcher first uses a dynamic link facility to link the application with the library. Then it tries to find a C function inside the library to be used as the loader. The name of research, this C function is the string luaopen_ concatenated with a copy of the module name where each dot is replaced by an underscore. Essay On Mental Services? Moreover, if the module name has a hyphen, its prefix up to (and including) the first hyphen is removed. For instance, if the module name is a.v1-b.c , the function name will be luaopen_b_c . The fourth searcher tries an all-in-one loader . It searches the paper research, C path for a library for the root name of the given module. For instance, when requiring a.b.c , it will search for a C library for a . If found, it looks into club harlem renaissance essays it for an open function for the submodule; in our example, that would be luaopen_a_b_c . With this facility, a package can pack several C submodules into paper research one single library, with each submodule keeping its original open function.
Dynamically links the host program with the C library libname . Inside this library, looks for service colchester, a function funcname and returns this function as a C function. (So, funcname must follow the protocol (see lua_CFunction )). This is a low-level function. It completely bypasses the package and chem concept, module system. Unlike require , it does not perform any path searching and anthropological, does not automatically adds extensions. libname must be the complete file name of the C library, including if necessary a path and extension. funcname must be the exact name exported by the C library (which may depend on the C compiler and linker used). This function is not supported by ANSI C. As such, it is only available on some platforms (Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, BSD, plus other Unix systems that support the dlfcn standard). The path used by require to search for a Lua loader.
At start-up, Lua initializes this variable with the value of the chem concept paper research, environment variable LUA_PATH or with a default path defined in a definitional luaconf.h , if the environment variable is not defined. Any ;; in the value of the environment variable is replaced by the default path. A table to chem research, store loaders for specific modules (see require ). Sets a metatable for module with its __index field referring to the global environment, so that this module inherits values from the global environment. To be used as an option to function module . This library provides generic functions for essay on mental services, string manipulation, such as finding and paper research, extracting substrings, and pattern matching. When indexing a string in Lua, the first character is at position 1 (not at 0, as in C). Indices are allowed to be negative and essays, are interpreted as indexing backwards, from the end of the string. Thus, the chem paper research, last character is at position -1, and so on. The string library provides all its functions inside the service colchester, table string . It also sets a metatable for strings where the __index field points to the string table. Chem? Therefore, you can use the essay health services, string functions in object-oriented style.
For instance, string.byte(s, i) can be written as s:byte(i) . The string library assumes one-byte character encodings. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Returns a string containing a binary representation of the given function, so that a later loadstring on this string returns a copy of the concept paper research, function. function must be a Lua function without upvalues. string.find (s, pattern [, init [, plain]]) If the pattern has captures, then in a successful match the captured values are also returned, after the two indices. will produce the string: The options c , d , E , e , f , g , G , i , o , u , X , and x all expect a number as argument, whereas q and s expect a string. This function does not accept string values containing embedded zeros, except as arguments to the q option. As an example, the following loop.
will iterate over service all the words from string s , printing one per line. The next example collects all pairs key=value from the given string into a table: For this function, a ' ^ ' at the start of a pattern does not work as an anchor, as this would prevent the iteration. If repl is chem, a string, then its value is used for replacement. The character % works as an escape character: any sequence in repl of the form % n , with n between 1 and 9, stands for the value of the n -th captured substring (see below).
The sequence %0 stands for the whole match. The sequence %% stands for a single % . If repl is a table, then the table is queried for every match, using the first capture as the key; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is used as the anthropological, key. If repl is paper, a function, then this function is paper, called every time a match occurs, with all captured substrings passed as arguments, in order; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the chem concept, whole match is passed as a sole argument. If the value returned by the table query or by the function call is six sigma term paper, a string or a number, then it is used as the chem, replacement string; otherwise, if it is false or nil , then there is no replacement (that is, the original match is kept in the string). Here are some examples: A character class is essay, used to represent a set of characters. The following combinations are allowed in concept paper describing a character class: x : (where x is not one of the magic characters ^$()%.*+-? ) represents the to write a definitional, character x itself. . : (a dot) represents all characters. %a : represents all letters. %c : represents all control characters. Paper? %d : represents all digits. %l : represents all lowercase letters. %p : represents all punctuation characters. %s : represents all space characters. Essays? %u : represents all uppercase letters. %w : represents all alphanumeric characters. %x : represents all hexadecimal digits. %z : represents the character with representation 0. % x : (where x is any non-alphanumeric character) represents the character x . This is the standard way to concept paper, escape the magic characters.
Any punctuation character (even the non magic) can be preceded by anthropological essays, a ' % ' when used to represent itself in a pattern. [ set ] : represents the class which is the union of all characters in set . A range of characters can be specified by chem concept paper, separating the end characters of the range with a ' - '. All classes % x described above can also be used as components in set . All other characters in set represent themselves. For example, [%w_] (or [_%w] ) represents all alphanumeric characters plus the essays, underscore, [0-7] represents the octal digits, and [0-7%l%-] represents the concept, octal digits plus the lowercase letters plus the ' - ' character. The interaction between ranges and classes is not defined. Therefore, patterns like [%a-z] or [a-%%] have no meaning. [^ set ] : represents the complement of set , where set is interpreted as above. For all classes represented by single letters ( %a , %c , etc.), the corresponding uppercase letter represents the complement of the class. For instance, %S represents all non-space characters. The definitions of letter, space, and other character groups depend on the current locale. In particular, the class [a-z] may not be equivalent to to write a definitional essay, %l . A pattern item can be a single character class, which matches any single character in chem the class; a single character class followed by ' * ', which matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' + ', which matches 1 or more repetitions of characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by three, ' - ', which also matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. Unlike ' * ', these repetition items will always match the concept research, shortest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' ? ', which matches 0 or 1 occurrence of a character in the class; % n , for n between 1 and 9; such item matches a substring equal to the n -th captured string (see below); %b xy , where x and y are two distinct characters; such item matches strings that start with x , end with y , and where the x and y are balanced . This means that, if one reads the string from left to right, counting +1 for an x and -1 for a y , the ending y is the first y where the count reaches 0. For instance, the cotton harlem renaissance, item %b() matches expressions with balanced parentheses.
A pattern is chem concept paper, a sequence of pattern items. A ' ^ ' at the beginning of a pattern anchors the match at on mental the beginning of the subject string. A ' $ ' at the end of chem concept, a pattern anchors the match at the end of the subject string. Cotton Club Essays? At other positions, ' ^ ' and ' $ ' have no special meaning and represent themselves. A pattern can contain sub-patterns enclosed in parentheses; they describe captures . When a match succeeds, the substrings of the subject string that match captures are stored ( captured ) for future use. Chem Concept Research? Captures are numbered according to their left parentheses. For instance, in the pattern (a*(.)%w(%s*)) , the part of the string matching a*(.)%w(%s*) is stored as the first capture (and therefore has number 1); the to write essay, character matching . is captured with number 2, and the part matching %s* has number 3. As a special case, the empty capture () captures the current string position (a number). Chem Concept? For instance, if we apply the pattern ()aa() on the string flaaap , there will be two captures: 3 and 5. A pattern cannot contain embedded zeros. Use %z instead.
This library provides generic functions for table manipulation. It provides all its functions inside the table table . Most functions in the table library assume that the table represents an array or a list. For these functions, when we talk about the term, length of concept research, a table we mean the result of the length operator. Inserts element value at position pos in table , shifting up other elements to paper, open space, if necessary. The default value for pos is n+1 , where n is the length of the table (see §2.5.5), so that a call table.insert(t,x) inserts x at concept paper research the end of table t . Returns the cotton club harlem, largest positive numerical index of the given table, or zero if the table has no positive numerical indices. (To do its job this function does a linear traversal of the whole table.) Removes from table the concept research, element at position pos , shifting down other elements to close the space, if necessary. Term Paper? Returns the value of the chem concept paper research, removed element. Essay Radio Three? The default value for chem concept paper research, pos is n , where n is the length of the table, so that a call table.remove(t) removes the essay on mental health, last element of table t . The sort algorithm is not stable; that is, elements considered equal by paper, the given order may have their relative positions changed by anthropological, the sort. This library is an interface to concept paper research, the standard C math library. Essays? It provides all its functions inside the chem, table math . Returns the absolute value of x . Returns the arc cosine of x (in radians). Returns the arc sine of six sigma term, x (in radians).
Returns the arc tangent of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of y/x (in radians), but uses the chem concept, signs of cv writing, both parameters to find the quadrant of the result. (It also handles correctly the research, case of x being zero.) Returns the smallest integer larger than or equal to x . Returns the cosine of x (assumed to six sigma term paper, be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic cosine of x . Returns the angle x (given in radians) in degrees. Returns the chem research, value e x . Returns the largest integer smaller than or equal to x . Returns the remainder of the division of x by y that rounds the quotient towards zero. Returns m and e such that x = m2 e , e is an essay radio three integer and the absolute value of m is in the range [0.5, 1) (or zero when x is zero).
The value HUGE_VAL , a value larger than or equal to any other numerical value. Returns m2 e ( e should be an integer). Returns the natural logarithm of x . Returns the base-10 logarithm of x . Returns the maximum value among its arguments. Returns the minimum value among its arguments. Returns two numbers, the chem research, integral part of x and to write essay, the fractional part of x . Returns x y . (You can also use the expression x^y to compute this value.) Returns the angle x (given in degrees) in paper research radians. This function is an interface to the simple pseudo-random generator function rand provided by to write essay, ANSI C. (No guarantees can be given for its statistical properties.) When called without arguments, returns a uniform pseudo-random real number in the range [0,1) . Chem Paper Research? When called with an integer number m , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [1, m] . When called with two integer numbers m and harlem renaissance, n , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [m, n] . Sets x as the seed for the pseudo-random generator: equal seeds produce equal sequences of numbers. Returns the sine of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic sine of x . Returns the paper, square root of x . (You can also use the expression x^0.5 to compute this value.) Returns the a definitional, tangent of x (assumed to paper, be in radians).
Returns the hyperbolic tangent of x . The I/O library provides two different styles for file manipulation. The first one uses implicit file descriptors; that is, there are operations to set a default input file and a default output file, and all input/output operations are over these default files. The second style uses explicit file descriptors. When using implicit file descriptors, all operations are supplied by table io . When using explicit file descriptors, the colchester, operation io.open returns a file descriptor and chem concept, then all operations are supplied as methods of the file descriptor. The table io also provides three predefined file descriptors with their usual meanings from C: io.stdin , io.stdout , and io.stderr . The I/O library never closes these files. Unless otherwise stated, all I/O functions return nil on failure (plus an error message as a second result and a system-dependent error code as a third result) and some value different from nil on success.
Equivalent to file:close() . Without a file , closes the default output file. Equivalent to file:flush over the default output file. When called with a file name, it opens the named file (in text mode), and sets its handle as the default input file. When called with a file handle, it simply sets this file handle as the default input file. When called without parameters, it returns the current default input file. In case of errors this function raises the error, instead of returning an error code. Opens the given file name in read mode and returns an iterator function that, each time it is three, called, returns a new line from the file. Therefore, the construction. will iterate over chem concept all lines of the file.
When the iterator function detects the end of file, it returns nil (to finish the loop) and essays, automatically closes the file. The call io.lines() (with no file name) is equivalent to io.input():lines() ; that is, it iterates over the lines of the default input file. In this case it does not close the file when the chem paper, loop ends. This function opens a file, in the mode specified in the string mode . It returns a new file handle, or, in to write essay case of errors, nil plus an chem concept error message. The mode string can be any of the service, following: r: read mode (the default); w: write mode; a: append mode; r+: update mode, all previous data is preserved; w+: update mode, all previous data is erased; a+: append update mode, previous data is preserved, writing is paper, only allowed at essay radio the end of chem concept paper, file.
The mode string can also have a ' b ' at the end, which is needed in some systems to open the anthropological, file in binary mode. This string is exactly what is used in the standard C function fopen . Similar to io.input , but operates over concept research the default output file. Starts program prog in a separated process and returns a file handle that you can use to read data from cotton harlem this program (if mode is r , the chem, default) or to write data to this program (if mode is w ). This function is system dependent and is not available on all platforms. Equivalent to io.input():read . Returns a handle for a temporary file. This file is opened in update mode and it is automatically removed when the program ends. Checks whether obj is to write essay, a valid file handle. Returns the string file if obj is an chem concept open file handle, closed file if obj is a closed file handle, or nil if obj is not a file handle. Equivalent to io.output():write . Closes file . Note that files are automatically closed when their handles are garbage collected, but that takes an unpredictable amount of time to happen.
Saves any written data to file . Returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file. Essays? Therefore, the construction. will iterate over paper research all lines of the file. A Definitional Essay? (Unlike io.lines , this function does not close the file when the loop ends.) Reads the file file , according to the given formats, which specify what to chem concept paper, read. For each format, the function returns a string (or a number) with the characters read, or nil if it cannot read data with the specified format. When called without formats, it uses a default format that reads the essays, entire next line (see below).
The available formats are *n: reads a number; this is the only format that returns a number instead of a string. *a: reads the whole file, starting at the current position. On end of file, it returns the empty string. *l: reads the next line (skipping the end of line), returning nil on chem end of file. This is the essay services, default format. number : reads a string with up to this number of characters, returning nil on end of file. If number is zero, it reads nothing and returns an empty string, or nil on end of file. Sets and gets the file position, measured from the beginning of the file, to the position given by offset plus a base specified by the string whence , as follows: set: base is paper research, position 0 (beginning of the file); cur: base is current position; end: base is end of file; In case of essays, success, function seek returns the final file position, measured in bytes from the chem concept research, beginning of the file. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the anthropological essays, error. The default value for whence is cur , and for concept paper research, offset is 0. Therefore, the call file:seek() returns the current file position, without changing it; the call file:seek(set) sets the position to the beginning of the file (and returns 0); and the call file:seek(end) sets the position to the end of the file, and returns its size.
Sets the buffering mode for an output file. There are three available modes: no: no buffering; the result of any output operation appears immediately. full: full buffering; output operation is performed only when the to write essay, buffer is research, full (or when you explicitly flush the file (see io.flush )). line: line buffering; output is buffered until a newline is output or there is any input from on mental some special files (such as a terminal device). For the last two cases, size specifies the size of the buffer, in bytes. The default is an appropriate size. Writes the value of each of its arguments to the file . The arguments must be strings or numbers. To write other values, use tostring or string.format before write . This library is implemented through table os . Returns an approximation of the concept paper, amount in seconds of CPU time used by the program.
Returns a string or a table containing date and club harlem renaissance essays, time, formatted according to the given string format . If the time argument is present, this is the chem concept, time to be formatted (see the os.time function for a description of this value). Otherwise, date formats the current time. If format starts with ' ! ', then the date is formatted in Coordinated Universal Time. After this optional character, if format is the string *t , then date returns a table with the following fields: year (four digits), month (1--12), day (1--31), hour (0--23), min (0--59), sec (0--61), wday (weekday, Sunday is 1), yday (day of the radio three, year), and isdst (daylight saving flag, a boolean). If format is not *t , then date returns the date as a string, formatted according to the same rules as the C function strftime . When called without arguments, date returns a reasonable date and time representation that depends on the host system and on the current locale (that is, os.date() is concept research, equivalent to six sigma term paper, os.date(%c) ). Returns the number of seconds from time t1 to time t2 . In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this value is concept paper, exactly t2 - t1 . This function is equivalent to the C function system . It passes command to be executed by an operating system shell. It returns a status code, which is anthropological, system-dependent. If command is absent, then it returns nonzero if a shell is available and zero otherwise. Calls the C function exit , with an chem paper optional code , to terminate the host program. The default value for code is the success code.
Returns the value of the process environment variable varname , or nil if the variable is essay radio three, not defined. Deletes the file or directory with the chem paper, given name. Directories must be empty to be removed. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the essay, error. Renames file or directory named oldname to newname . If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. Sets the current locale of the program. locale is a string specifying a locale; category is an optional string describing which category to research, change: all , collate , ctype , monetary , numeric , or time ; the default category is all . Six Sigma? The function returns the name of the new locale, or nil if the request cannot be honored. If locale is the chem paper research, empty string, the current locale is set to an implementation-defined native locale. If locale is the string C , the current locale is essay on mental, set to the standard C locale. When called with nil as the first argument, this function only returns the name of the current locale for the given category.
Returns the current time when called without arguments, or a time representing the date and time specified by the given table. This table must have fields year , month , and chem concept paper, day , and may have fields hour , min , sec , and anthropological essays, isdst (for a description of these fields, see the os.date function). The returned value is a number, whose meaning depends on your system. In POSIX, Windows, and chem concept paper research, some other systems, this number counts the number of seconds since some given start time (the epoch). In other systems, the meaning is not specified, and the number returned by time can be used only paper, as an argument to date and difftime . Returns a string with a file name that can be used for a temporary file. The file must be explicitly opened before its use and concept paper, explicitly removed when no longer needed. On some systems (POSIX), this function also creates a file with that name, to avoid security risks. (Someone else might create the file with wrong permissions in the time between getting the name and a definitional, creating the file.) You still have to open the file to use it and to remove it (even if you do not use it). When possible, you may prefer to use io.tmpfile , which automatically removes the file when the program ends.
This library provides the functionality of the debug interface to Lua programs. Chem Concept Paper? You should exert care when using this library. The functions provided here should be used exclusively for debugging and similar tasks, such as profiling. Please resist the temptation to use them as a usual programming tool: they can be very slow. Moreover, several of essay radio, these functions violate some assumptions about Lua code (e.g., that variables local to a function cannot be accessed from outside or that userdata metatables cannot be changed by Lua code) and research, therefore can compromise otherwise secure code. All functions in this library are provided inside the debug table. All functions that operate over a thread have an optional first argument which is the thread to operate over. Six Sigma Paper? The default is always the current thread. Enters an interactive mode with the user, running each string that the chem research, user enters.
Using simple commands and other debug facilities, the user can inspect global and six sigma term paper, local variables, change their values, evaluate expressions, and so on. A line containing only the word cont finishes this function, so that the caller continues its execution. Note that commands for concept research, debug.debug are not lexically nested within any function, and so have no direct access to local variables. Returns the current hook settings of the three, thread, as three values: the current hook function, the concept paper research, current hook mask, and the current hook count (as set by the debug.sethook function). debug.getinfo ([thread,] function [, what]) Returns a table with information about a function. You can give the function directly, or you can give a number as the value of function , which means the function running at level function of the call stack of the given thread: level 0 is the current function ( getinfo itself); level 1 is the essay radio, function that called getinfo ; and so on.
If function is chem concept paper, a number larger than the number of active functions, then getinfo returns nil . The returned table can contain all the fields returned by lua_getinfo , with the string what describing which fields to fill in. The default for what is to get all information available, except the radio three, table of valid lines. If present, the option ' f ' adds a field named func with the function itself. If present, the option ' L ' adds a field named activelines with the table of valid lines. For instance, the expression debug.getinfo(1,n).name returns a table with a name for the current function, if a reasonable name can be found, and concept research, the expression debug.getinfo(print) returns a table with all available information about the print function. This function returns the name and the value of the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the stack. (The first parameter or local variable has index 1, and so on, until the last active local variable.) The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and three, raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call debug.getinfo to check whether the level is valid.) Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns the metatable of the given object or nil if it does not have a metatable. Returns the registry table (see §3.5). This function returns the name and the value of the upvalue with index up of the function func . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the chem, given index. Sets the environment of the given object to the given table . Returns object . debug.sethook ([thread,] hook, mask [, count])
Sets the given function as a hook. The string mask and the number count describe when the hook will be called. The string mask may have the following characters, with the given meaning: c : the hook is term, called every time Lua calls a function; r : the research, hook is called every time Lua returns from a function; l : the hook is called every time Lua enters a new line of code. With a count different from to write essay zero, the hook is research, called after every count instructions. When called without arguments, debug.sethook turns off the hook. When the hook is called, its first parameter is a string describing the event that has triggered its call: call , return (or tail return , when simulating a return from a tail call), line , and count . Paper? For line events, the chem, hook also gets the new line number as its second parameter. Inside a hook, you can call getinfo with level 2 to get more information about the essay, running function (level 0 is the getinfo function, and level 1 is the hook function), unless the event is tail return . In this case, Lua is only simulating the return, and a call to getinfo will return invalid data. debug.setlocal ([thread,] level, local, value) This function assigns the chem concept, value value to the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the stack.
The function returns nil if there is radio three, no local variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call getinfo to check whether the level is valid.) Otherwise, it returns the name of the local variable. Sets the metatable for the given object to the given table (which can be nil ). This function assigns the value value to the upvalue with index up of the concept paper research, function func . Anthropological? The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the paper, given index. Otherwise, it returns the name of the upvalue. debug.traceback ([thread,] [message [, level]]) Returns a string with a traceback of the call stack. An optional message string is appended at the beginning of the traceback. An optional level number tells at to write which level to start the chem concept, traceback (default is harlem renaissance, 1, the concept paper, function calling traceback ). Although Lua has been designed as an extension language, to be embedded in essays a host C program, it is also frequently used as a stand-alone language. An interpreter for Lua as a stand-alone language, called simply lua , is provided with the standard distribution.
The stand-alone interpreter includes all standard libraries, including the debug library. Its usage is: The options are: -e stat : executes string stat ; -l mod : requires mod ; -i : enters interactive mode after running script ; -v : prints version information; -- : stops handling options; - : executes stdin as a file and stops handling options. After handling its options, lua runs the given script , passing to chem concept research, it the anthropological essays, given args as string arguments. When called without arguments, lua behaves as lua -v -i when the standard input ( stdin ) is a terminal, and as lua - otherwise. Before running any argument, the interpreter checks for concept research, an environment variable LUA_INIT . If its format is @ filename , then lua executes the cotton renaissance, file. Otherwise, lua executes the string itself. All options are handled in order, except -i . For instance, an invocation like. will first set a to 1, then print the value of a (which is ' 1 '), and chem, finally run the file script.lua with no arguments. (Here $ is the shell prompt. Your prompt may be different.)
Before starting to run the script, lua collects all arguments in the command line in a global table called arg . Service Colchester? The script name is stored at index 0, the first argument after the script name goes to paper, index 1, and so on. Essay Radio? Any arguments before the script name (that is, the concept research, interpreter name plus the options) go to negative indices. For instance, in the call. the interpreter first runs the file a.lua , then creates a table. and finally runs the file b.lua . The script is called with arg , arg , ··· as arguments; it can also access these arguments with the vararg expression ' . '. In interactive mode, if you write an incomplete statement, the interpreter waits for its completion by issuing a different prompt. If the global variable _PROMPT contains a string, then its value is used as the prompt. Similarly, if the global variable _PROMPT2 contains a string, its value is radio three, used as the secondary prompt (issued during incomplete statements). Therefore, both prompts can be changed directly on the command line or in any Lua programs by assigning to _PROMPT . See the chem paper, next example: (The outer pair of quotes is for the shell, the inner pair is for Lua.) Note the use of -i to essay three, enter interactive mode; otherwise, the program would just end silently right after the chem, assignment to _PROMPT . To allow the use of Lua as a script interpreter in Unix systems, the to write a definitional, stand-alone interpreter skips the first line of a chunk if it starts with # . Therefore, Lua scripts can be made into executable programs by using chmod +x and the #! form, as in. (Of course, the location of the Lua interpreter may be different in your machine.
If lua is in your PATH , then. is a more portable solution.) 7 Incompatibilities with the Previous Version. Here we list the incompatibilities that you may find when moving a program from chem concept Lua 5.0 to essays, Lua 5.1. You can avoid most of the incompatibilities compiling Lua with appropriate options (see file luaconf.h ). However, all these compatibility options will be removed in the next version of Lua. The vararg system changed from the chem research, pseudo-argument arg with a table with the extra arguments to the vararg expression. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_VARARG in luaconf.h .) There was a subtle change in essay three the scope of the chem paper research, implicit variables of essays, the for statement and for chem concept paper research, the repeat statement. The long string/long comment syntax ( [[ string ]] ) does not allow nesting. You can use the new syntax ( [=[ string ]=] ) in these cases. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LSTR in luaconf.h .)
Function string.gfind was renamed string.gmatch . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GFIND in luaconf.h .) When string.gsub is called with a function as its third argument, whenever this function returns nil or false the replacement string is the cv writing service, whole match, instead of the research, empty string. Function table.setn was deprecated. Function table.getn corresponds to the new length operator ( # ); use the operator instead of the cv writing, function. Concept Research? (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GETN in luaconf.h .) Function loadlib was renamed package.loadlib . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LOADLIB in luaconf.h .) Function math.mod was renamed math.fmod . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_MOD in anthropological luaconf.h .) Functions table.foreach and table.foreachi are deprecated. You can use a for loop with pairs or ipairs instead. There were substantial changes in function require due to the new module system. However, the new behavior is mostly compatible with the old, but require gets the path from package.path instead of from LUA_PATH . Function collectgarbage has different arguments. Function gcinfo is deprecated; use collectgarbage(count) instead. The luaopen_* functions (to open libraries) cannot be called directly, like a regular C function.
They must be called through Lua, like a Lua function. Concept Paper? Function lua_open was replaced by lua_newstate to allow the club harlem, user to set a memory-allocation function. You can use luaL_newstate from the standard library to create a state with a standard allocation function (based on realloc ). Functions luaL_getn and luaL_setn (from the chem concept research, auxiliary library) are deprecated. Term? Use lua_objlen instead of luaL_getn and nothing instead of luaL_setn . Function luaL_openlib was replaced by luaL_register . Chem Paper Research? Function luaL_checkudata now throws an error when the colchester, given value is not a userdata of the expected type. (In Lua 5.0 it returned NULL .) Here is the complete syntax of Lua in extended BNF. Research? (It does not describe operator precedences.)
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9 Do’s And Don’ts For Your Application Resume. Your resume is usually the first opportunity admissions readers have to get to know you, your experience, and your skills. Chem Research? Because of the number of other application components they need to review (both yours and those belonging to the thousands of essay radio other applicants), most adcom readers will only give your resume a quick fifteen-second glance before moving on paper, to the next thing on their checklist. Not only do you have to make a great first impression – you have to do it fast! Fortunately, there are many ways to craft an to write a definitional essay, application resume that strategically highlights your skills and paper research, makes you and on mental, your qualifications stand out from the crowd. The following Do’s and Don’ts will help you develop a dynamic, powerful resume that will enable you to sail through the adcom’s initial fifteen-second screening process and earn your outstanding qualifications the closer look they deserve. 1. Place your strongest material in the two-inch visual space that begins about 2 5/8 inches from the top of your resume . Make sure you include your most impressive, impactful achievements and qualifications in this #8220;primetime#8221; space. It’s where the reader’s eyes will focus first. 2. Use a professional profile or qualifications section in your resume’s primetime space to give the concept, adcom reader a quick but concrete capsule of your achievements and skills.
Write this section when the three, rest of chem paper research your resume is complete and you’ve already decided what your strongest qualifications are. Three? 3. Give the chem paper, most weight to your most recent professional position. The section of the resume for your most recent position should contain more bulleted accomplishments than your previous positions. For each position, rank the six sigma term paper, accomplishments in chem concept paper research order of decreasing relevance to the employer you are targeting. 4. Quantify your impact on the organizations you have worked for.
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Cinderella Man And The Great Depression Essays and Research Papers. Professor O’Neil Hist 173 2 May 2015 Cinderella Man and the Great Depression Cinderella . Man is a biographical film of boxer James J. Braddock that clearly illustrates Americas struggle through the Great Depression . Cinderella Man accurately shows the prevailing attitude of the time. The movie also focuses on how boxing was a temporary shelter from the suffering for many. This movie offers many accurate scenes relating to the depressing tone of the Great Depression . One specific example of true representation. 1930s , Business cycle , Cinderella Man 645 Words | 3 Pages. Cinderella Man The boxing drama starring Russell Crowe and Renee Zellweger and directed by Ron Howard is based on a true story . of one man's extraordinary fight to chem, save the family he loved. Cinderella Man tells a boxing story we've all heard before, Fighter gets knocked down, fighter struggles, fighter ultimately wins, but this story is different. A Definitional? This movie characterizes what actually happened to James J. Braddock, the celebrated athlete whose boxing comeback became a sign for hope during the. 1930s , Boxing , Cinderella Man 1090 Words | 3 Pages. characters and chem paper describe them. How has Ron Howard directed your response to service colchester, them?
Do these characters change during the course of the film?’ . Cinderella Man is a 2005 American drama film directed by Ron Howard. Concept Paper? The film is based on real-life events that focus on the life of the anthropological essays, professional boxer James J. Braddock and his struggle through the Great Depression . The main characters portrayed in research, the film are very diverse and essay radio versatile throughout the story. Howard’s technique was to construct the characters. Boxing , Business cycle , Cinderella Man 833 Words | 3 Pages. Cinderella Man and the Great Depression. James J. Concept? Braddock once said, I have to believe that once things are bad, I have to change them. Anthropological Essays? The movie Cinderella Man is . about Braddock rising from a poor, unsuccessful boxer to the heavyweight boxing champion of the world.
The historical background to his life and chem concept paper career was during the same time period as the Great Depression . Essays? James Braddock was not always the boxer he is concept paper research, now known to essay three, be, in the 1920’s he had lost one third of his fights and concept people referred to him as a “bum” which is the lowest. Boxing , Business cycle , Cinderella Man 837 Words | 2 Pages. Review Cinderella Man October 29, 1929, some may know it as Black Tuesday, others know it as an important date in history but . those who lived it know it as the day that changed their lives for many years to come. Black Tuesday marked the six sigma, beginning of a new life style for the people of the 30’s. The stock market crashed and although its investors lost all they had, margin buyers were completely wiped out. This essay will examine the changes that followed the concept paper, event that marked the a definitional essay, Great Depression through.
1930s , Business cycle , Great Depression 1199 Words | 3 Pages. The Great Depression : The Extensive Effects The 1920s was a time of roaring prosperity. Even mid-October of 1929, the average . middle-class American saw an “illimitable vista of prosperity” (Dixon 1). The thought of poverty was close to an end; in 1928, President Herbert Hoover stated, “We have not yet reached the goal, but given a chance to go forward with the policies of the last eight years, and chem we shall soon with the help of God be within sight of the day when poverty will be banished from the. Great Depression , Herbert Hoover , New Deal 1701 Words | 5 Pages. ? The Great Depression There is a general agreement that the depression caused from several causes, . not just one.
But, it caused the economy of the countries by service the world war. An example, “For a few weeks it isn`t so bad for man and chem paper research his wife and essays a baby to get along on $4.80 a week, paying $3 of it out for rent” interviewed a young man on federal work program. The federal government responded quite differently to the prosperity of the 1920s and paper research the Great Depression that followed. Roosevelt's. 1930s , Business cycle , Great Depression 775 Words | 2 Pages. The Great Depression was an economic slump in North America, Europe, and other industrialized areas of the world that began in . 1929 and lasted until about colchester, 1939 that affect the lower class, mid class and high class. The most devastating impact of the Great Depression was human suffering. Like Christina D. Romer said “In a short period of time, world output and standards of living dropped precipitously.
As much as one-fourth of the labor force in concept paper, industrialized countries was unable to find work in. 1930s , Great Depression , Middle class 876 Words | 3 Pages. The Great Depression In other periods of depression , it has always been possible to see some things which were . solid and upon which you could base hope, but as I look about, I now see nothing to give ground to hope—nothing of man . - Former President Calvin Coolidge, 1932 The 1920s was a time of roaring prosperity marked by booming business and negligible unemployment. Even during the October of 1929, the thought of poverty was close to an end. In fact, in 1928, President Herbert Hoover. Business cycle , Economy of the United States , Great Depression 2619 Words | 7 Pages. The Great Depression The Great Depression (1929-39) was the deepest and longest-lasting economic . downturn in the history of the health services, Western industrialized world. In the chem concept paper, United States, the Great Depression began soon after the stock market crash of service October 1929, which sent Wall Street into a panic and chem concept paper research wiped out millions of investors. Over the six sigma, next several years, consumer spending and investment dropped, causing steep declines in industrial output and rising levels of unemployment as failing companies. Dust Bowl , Franklin D. Roosevelt , Great Depression 2268 Words | 7 Pages. The Great Depression was a time of turmoil, drama, hardships, and trials for most Americans, a time when jobs and homes they . Chem Concept? thought they could count on suddenly were gone.
Getting food, clothing, and a bed became an everyday struggle for on mental many. What caused the concept, Great Depression of the United States and what effects did it have on colchester, the lives of the people? The Great Depression is one of the most misunderstood events in American History. The Great Depression , an awful, tragic event, was a time when. 1930s , Business cycle , Dust Bowl 2452 Words | 7 Pages.
Cinderella Man_Analysis of the Great Depression. the Great Depression In a world where every day is worse than previous, Jim Braddock manages to prevail and also inspire his . Research? community with his rags-to-riches career; which ended up awarding him the nickname ‘ Cinderella Man ’. This essay will talk about how many people in the great depression lived in poverty, how they coped by food rationing and six sigma term paper through it all the concept paper, persevered with the help of faith. The movie, Cinderella Man vividly describes life in the Great Depression ; Cinderella Man gives. 1930s , Business cycle , Great Depression 560 Words | 2 Pages. most do. 2) Stock Market Crash- (1929) Plunge in stock market prices that marked the radio, beginning of the chem, Great Depression . 3) New . Deal- the essay, historic period (1933-1940) in the U.S. Paper Research? during which President Franklin Roosevelt's economic policies were implemented. Three components of the New Deal. The first R was the effort to help the one-third of the population that was hardest hit by service colchester the depression , included social security and unemployment insurance. The second R was the effort in numerous programs. Dwight D. Chem Paper? Eisenhower , Franklin D. Roosevelt , Great Depression 1410 Words | 4 Pages.
Interdisciplinary Research Paper - Cinderella Man. Nuclear Family as portrayed in radio three, Cinderella Man “I have to believe that when things are bad I can change them.” James J. Chem Concept Paper Research? . Braddock did exactly that. Essay Radio Three? Cinderella Man was filmed in 2005. It was directed by Ron Howard and produced by Brian Grazer, with screenplay credits to Cliff Hollingsworth and concept research Akiva Goldsman; Cliff Hollingsworth wrote the essay on mental health, story as well. This film was released and aired in over 30 countries through out the world. On its opening weekend in the USA, Cinderella Man brought in well over 18 million. Cinderella Man , Extended family , Family 2149 Words | 5 Pages. ?https://www.britannica.com/blackhistory/article-285193 African Americans African American life during the Great Depression and . the New Deal Workers, many of them migrants, grading beans at a canning plant in Florida in 1937. The economic … Library of Congress, Washington, D.C., Arthur Rothstein (neg. no. LC-USF34-005788-D) The Great Depression of the chem paper, 1930s worsened the already bleak economic situation of cv writing service colchester African Americans.
They were the first to be laid off from concept research, their jobs, and they suffered from. African American , Black people , Democratic Party 2092 Words | 9 Pages. Cinderella : Once Upon A Time The story of Cinderella has appealed to a number of audiences since its earliest dated version in . A.D. Essay? 850. Chem Concept Paper Research? Even with the extensive selection of fairy tales in existence, Cinderella is six sigma paper, undoubtedly the best known in the world, with over 700 versions of this story available. However, this popularity is not limited strictly to literature, for chem research the Cinderella theme is essay three, also seen in concept paper research, many movie productions. Two movies, Walt Disney's Cinderella and Andy Tennant's Ever After. A Cinderella Story , Cinderella , Cinderella adaptations 1605 Words | 4 Pages.
The Great Depression was a hard time in American history. During the Depression many people struggled to have . enough money to survive and have basic necessities like food, water, and shelter. The novella, of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck, takes place during the on mental services, great depression . Lennie Smalls and paper research George Milton have to face situations that were very common during the club essays, 1930’s. John Steinbeck’s novella closely relates to the many issues present in the 1930’s.The great depression took place throughout. 1930s , African American , Great Depression 1022 Words | 3 Pages. The Great Depression From 1929 to 1941, the United States suffered through its greatest economic crisis in its history. . Millions of people lost their jobs and went hungry. At this time, it was unclear whether the United States would ever recover.
From the Great Depression origin of the chem concept paper, 1929 stock market crash to its conclusion at the start of World War II, our country and its people will never be the same. The effects of the club renaissance, Great Depression can still be felt today. The stock market crash. 1930s , Business cycle , Great Depression 1283 Words | 4 Pages. “The Great Depression (1929-39) was the deepest and longest-lasting economic downturn in the history of the chem paper research, Western . Club Essays? industrialized world” (The Great Depression -History.com 2012). The great depression is chem concept paper research, said to have begun after the service, First World War, It was a time of hardship and uncertainty. Chem Paper? Although the great depression began in three, the United States it spread throughout the chem paper, globe and affected almost every country.
It brought about drastic declines in output, severe unemployment, and serious deflation. 1930s , Federal Reserve System , Great Depression 2819 Words | 7 Pages. The Great Depression Begins 1929-1933 Pgs 670-689 Key Terms: Alfred E. Smith- Herbert Hoover- John Steinbeck- . Douglas MacArthur- McNary-Haugen Bill- Hawley-Smoot Tariff Act (1930)- Federal Home Loan Bank Act (1933)- Reconstruction Finance Corporation (1932)- Patman Bill- Black Tuesday (Oct. Essay Health Services? 29, 1929)- Price Supports- Distribution of paper research Income- Buying on Margin- Great Depression - Dow Jones Industrial Average- Speculation- Shantytown- Dust Bowl- . Calvin Coolidge , Dust Bowl , Franklin D. Roosevelt 466 Words | 4 Pages. Running head: HOW THE GREAT DEPRESSION HAD AFFECTS ON CULTURE, ENTERTAINMENT AND FASHION . How The Great depression had affects on essay three, culture, entertainment and fashion by kayla park English Culture, entertainment and fashion. 1930s , Business cycle , Great Depression 1374 Words | 4 Pages. Running Head: THE BUST AND RECOVERY OF THE GREAT DEPRESSION The Devastating Results of concept “The Great . Depression ” Damaris R. Rodriguez American Intercontinental University Abstract The Great Depression began in North America but turned into a worldwide economic crisis that began in 1929 thru about 1939. 1930s , Dust Bowl , Great Depression 864 Words | 3 Pages. The Great Depression All these changes affects the club renaissance, society in different ways .The Great Depression . Chem Concept Research? caused many people to destruct businesses and led the government to regulate the businesses and six sigma term economic affairs.
All this increased regulation led to the widespread belief that the government should promise or guarantee citizens a good life, and paper high employment. Club Harlem Renaissance Essays? After the depression , many people no longer trusted employers to chem paper research, protect workers. As a result labor unions gained more members and grater. Economy of the United States , Federal Reserve System , Great Depression 1946 Words | 6 Pages. ?Running head: THE GREAT DEPRESSION The Great Depression Causes and a definitional The . Great Depression Causes The Great Depression was caused by not just one event, but by chem paper research a combination of factors that led to the Great Depression . These included the stock market crash of 1929, the failures of nine thousand banks, drought conditions in the Mississippi valley, also known as the Great Dust Bowl, in 1930 and radio three American economic policies with Europe, including the Smoot-Hawley Tariff in 1930. Business cycle , Central bank , Dow Jones Industrial Average 753 Words | 6 Pages.
The Great Depression In America the 1920's were a decade of prosperity some every claimed that we had entered into the age of paper research . permanent prosperity. Much of the world was still struggling to get over the affects of essay health services World War I but the chem, United States was thriving. Essay? The U.S. sentiment can be depicted from the chem concept paper research, lyrics of the song “…Blue skies, nothing but blue skies from now on…” that was composed in 1926 by renaissance Irving Berlin. However this sentiment would not last and paper American was soon to find that there. Calvin Coolidge , Economy of the United States , Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation 2042 Words | 5 Pages. Was Herbert Hoover The One To Blame? An argumentative essay on six sigma paper, who caused the Great Depression The Great . Depression was one of paper America’s greatest downfalls. On Mental Health Services? What began in the 1930s led to a national disaster from economic hardships and rough lifestyles.
The U.S. Chem Concept Paper Research? government including Herbert Hoover was responsible for this downfall because Hoover kept to the idea that allowing the essays, economy to concept paper research, correct itself was the best course of action. Service? Herbert Hoover was a viewed as a hero but his arrogance. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation , Federal government of the United States , Federal Reserve System 848 Words | 3 Pages. The Great Depression of the 1930s in Canada The Great Depression of the 1930's is concept, a benchmark for . all depressions and recessions in the past and in the future. Cotton Harlem Renaissance Essays? In the booklet The Great Depression of the 1930s in Canada , Michiel Horn gives an intellectual dissection of the events that occurred during the Great Depression . Concept Paper? Michiel Horn's approach leaves the reader with a foul taste for harlem essays the Dirty Thirties. This essay will summarize Michiel Horns key points as well as discuss the ability of. 1930s , Business cycle , Depression 1329 Words | 4 Pages.
three of “Dust Bowl” Douglas Hurt says “For many farmers who were already suffering the effects of the great depression , the dust . clouds were the final blow. Concept Research? they sold or abandoned their land and essay health services moved west to start over. (Hurt) This was a time when farmers where forced to move and leave their farms. Chem Concept? With the amount of farmers giving up the price for food would go up. In the cotton essays, movie Cinderella Man James Braddock struggles to pay for food to feed his family part of this is because of the effects of. 1930s , Dust Bowl , Economy of the United States 615 Words | 2 Pages. by the Great Depression . After the stock market crash in paper, 1929, the country changed drastically. Many people lost their jobs . because of this downturn in radio, the economy. During the Great Depression practically every person had to adjust to a different way of paper research living than what they were used to. Term? This paper explores how life changed for children, teenagers, African-Americans, farmers, women, and the middle class.
Historical Background Many factors led up to chem concept research, the Great Depression . Essay On Mental Health Services? Among. Business cycle , Great Depression , Great Depression in the United States 2005 Words | 6 Pages. Material The Great Depression Part 1 Complete the chart by filling in each president’s views on the Great . Depression . Herbert Hoover Franklin Delano Roosevelt Causes of the Great Depression *Weak agricultural and industrial growth in the US was due to chem concept paper research, foreign competition with domestic businesses, and service colchester a solution that helped both domestic and foreign economies grow mutually was not necessary. *The lack of individual and voluntary response to the depression , especially response. Franklin D. Roosevelt , Great Depression , Great Depression in the United States 1595 Words | 6 Pages. The Great Depression The Great Depression represents economic crises that affected North America, . Europe and other industrialized area around the world.
Classified as the paper, longest and most severe depression , The Western World experienced the cotton club harlem renaissance essays, crisis for an entire decade that began in 1929 and ran through 1939. Research? The Great Depression began here in the US but turned into on mental health services a worldwide issue. The collapse of the stock market on the New York Stock Exchange in paper research, 1929 was said to be the beginning of the. Democratic Party , Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation , Franklin D. Roosevelt 655 Words | 3 Pages. America went through hard times before like bank panics and depression in the early 1820s, 1830s, the mid-1870s, and the early and mid-1890s. . But never it never suffered an essays, economic illness so deep and so long as the concept research, Great Depression of the 1930s. The stock market crash, farm failures and term bank failures caused people to chem concept paper research, go into cv writing service colchester a hard crisis of paper research poverty causing the Great Depression . To Write Essay? In order to solve this depression the President Hoover issued policies that would impact or change the course of the. Calvin Coolidge , Economic collapse , Great Depression 949 Words | 3 Pages.
faces of hopeless starving young children, frantic men and women lining up in front of closed banks that held their life savings, and/or the homeless living . in cardboard shantytown. America had been doing great in its industrial economy, that is until the research, Great Depression . The Great Depression was one of the colchester, darkest times in U.S. economic history leaving many Americans unemployed and struggling to concept, survive. It all began with the stock market crash of 1929. The crash affected the banks and resulted. Franklin D. Roosevelt , Great Depression , New Deal 1189 Words | 6 Pages. Manhood during the Great Depression Manhood was shaken to its core during the Great Depression . . Never before has an era had such an altering impact on the way we perceive masculinity. This is best portrayed in essay on mental services, the popular culture of the day that demonstrated conflicting views of men at the time. This division of what masculinity is developed directly from the cynicism, escapism, and the traditional view of what the concept paper, American man should be. Popular Culture depicts a media response to what is cotton club, happening. 1930s , A Night at the Opera , Duck Soup 1031 Words | 3 Pages. The Great Depression The stock market crash of October 29, 1929 provided a dramatic end to an era of lopsided prosperity. . This disaster had been going on concept paper, for years.
Different historians and services economists offer different explanations for the crisis. Some blame the increasingly uneven distribution of wealth and purchasing power in the 1920s, while others blame the decade’s agricultural slump or the concept research, international instability caused by World War I. In any case, the nation was unprepared for the crash. Franklin D. Roosevelt , Great Depression , Herbert Hoover 882 Words | 3 Pages. The Great Depression Though most Americans are aware of the Great Depression of 1929, which may . well be the most serious problem facing our free enterprise economic system,( ) few know of the many Americans who lost their homes, life savings and jobs. This paper briefly states the causes of the depression and summarizes the vast problems Americans faced during the colchester, eleven years of its span. This paper primarily focuses on what life was like for farmers during the time of the Depression. 1930s , Dust Bowl , Great Depression 1743 Words | 5 Pages. ?The Great Depression 2014 - 02 - 20 Stefan Hidalgo Malmo Pauli Komvux The depression of 1929 was the chem research, . Anthropological? greatest economic crisis in the history of the United states and the world, all were affected and paper industries took this crisis hard about a decade ago. This crisis called depression originated in the United states, that occurred after the fall of the stock market on October 29, 1929 also known as “black Tuesday”, after it was extended to anthropological, all countries of the world. This crisis began with. Bank run , Great Depression , Keynesian economics 816 Words | 3 Pages.
. Introduction A. What in concept research, the world is this chapter about? 1. The Great Depression only worsened existing issues a. . Decline of globalization, flaws in Western democracies 2. New reactions to the Great Depression – and they’re not democracies a. Nazi Germany b. Colchester? Semifascist Japan c. Chem Concept Paper? Stalinist Russia d. China e. Authoritarian regimes in Latin America II. The Global Great Depression A. To Write Essay? Causation a. 1929 Stock Market Crash + new problems w/ industrialized + weak econ. Capitalism , Economics , Great Depression 568 Words | 3 Pages. Book Review - the Great Depression.
Amanda Carrion Review of The Great Depression America 1929-1941 by concept research Robert S. McElvaine September 2, 2004 The . Great Depression America 1929-1941 by essay health services Robert S. Concept Research? McElvaine covers many topics of American history during the Great Depression through 1941. The topic that I have selected to compare to the text of essay radio three American, Past and Present, written by Robert A. Divine, T.H. Chem? Breen, George M. Frederickson and R. Hal Williams, is Herbert Hoover, the thirty-first president of the United States and America's. Calvin Coolidge , Franklin D. Roosevelt , Great Depression 954 Words | 3 Pages. to enjoy the good life”, to reap “all the three, benefits of the chem, American economy” (Feinberg 21). It was because of this chase for extravagance and luxury at its . Anthropological? highest forms, however, that led to the demise of the concept, US economy. With this in mind, the Great Depression influenced the 1930s by setting the international socioeconomic foundations for essays decades to come. Chem Concept Paper? The 1920s was an era known by many to be boisterous and anthropological essays blithe, without a trace of assiduousness. Never were Americans more determined to have.
1930s , Economy of the United States , Franklin D. Roosevelt 1133 Words | 4 Pages. The Great Depression And The Economy Today The Great Depression is recognized as one of the research, . most severe economic downfalls of the US that ever happened in the history of America. Essays? This whole period of paper research economic downfall lasted about a decade as it began during the paper, late months of 1929. Though there were many factors that are held responsible for the Great Depression in America, but the principle cause was the amalgamation of the immensely unequal distribution of concept research wealth throughout the period. Business cycle , Capitalism , Federal Reserve System 1406 Words | 4 Pages. ? Give your opinion on whether or not the safeguards put in essays, place to prevent another Great Depression , starting with the . Roosevelt administration in the 1930s, can be effective today. The Great Depression caused many Americans to lose their jobs, their homes, their dreams, and aspirations. Roosevelt created the chem, “New Deal” in order to a definitional essay, rebuild the economy and prevent this from happening again. The “New Deal” consisted of three goals: relief, recovery, and reform.
One safeguard put in place that. Decision making , Democratic Party , Federal Emergency Relief Administration 1147 Words | 4 Pages. Assignment 2 Renita Moody Professor: Dr. James Adams May 10, 2013 The Great Depression The Great . Depression was the worst collapse in the history of American capitalism. Through out the chem, 1930’s, neither the free market nor the essay on mental health services, federal government was able to get the country working again. Paper Research? The American people endured a full decade of almost unbelievable economic misery. Essay? While a much-feared revolution of either communist or fascist persuasion never materialize Americans that flirted with a. 1930s , Franklin D. Roosevelt , Great Depression 1113 Words | 4 Pages. During the Great Depression the federal government implemented countless programs in chem, attempt to stabilize America's economy and . its people. These programs had both positive and negative results and although there were some confusions and contradictions as first, the New Deal did accelerate the U.S. economy by providing jobs for the unemployed and stimulating the economy through government deficit spending.
With the use of this New Deal, Roosevelt has left a lasting legacy in the role of the anthropological essays, federal. Franklin D. Roosevelt , Great Depression , Great Depression in the United States 908 Words | 3 Pages. Great - Man Theory Defining a Leader Omar Quesada Webber International University Introduction As I have . Chem Research? read about it, a particular interest in my has been raising about the wonderful way many people has utilized their natural abilities as a medium of reunion and leadership. I found a string link between this gifts or skills these men had and their particular behavior in on mental, the time they lived. I would like to talk about the special characteristics that had to be present; more. Charismatic authority , Leadership , Situational leadership theory 1762 Words | 6 Pages. United States into its longest, deepest economic crisis of its history.
Nine thousand banks failed during the months following the stock market crash of chem paper research . A Definitional Essay? 1929. It is far too simplistic to view the stock market crash as the single cause of the research, Great Depression . A healthy economy can recover from such a contraction. Long-term underlying causes sent the nation into a downward spiral of despair. First, American firms earned record profits during the 1920s and reinvested much of these funds into expansion. Economy of the United States , Great Depression , Herbert Hoover 1638 Words | 5 Pages. instances that point to cotton harlem renaissance, the mother possibly being a victim of postpartum depression . Emily. Chem Research? Although the consequences of the mother’s choices . have already taken effect, she can’t help but to on mental health, think about what she could have done or what Emily could be if she’d made the “right” decisions, as deemed by then society’s standards. The setting takes place during a time of struggle and chem concept paper research hopelessness in the United States, the Great Depression of the radio, 1930’s. The birth of chem concept paper research Emily, in this trying time, made for. 1930s , Family , Great Depression 2099 Words | 6 Pages. credit The Cinderella Man is a movie based on a true story during the Great Depression in New . To Write Essay? Jersey.
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In other periods of depression , it has always been possible to see some things which were solid and upon which you could base hope, but as I look about, I now see. Business cycle , Economic bubble , Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation 1182 Words | 4 Pages. Great Depression by John Steinbeck. David T. Lai Mr. McCarthy American Literature Period 7 12 May 2003 How did The Great Depression influence the works of John . Steinbeck? The purpose of this paper is to cotton club harlem essays, discover the role that the Great Depression played on the work of John Steinbeck. Chem? I must go over to the interior valleys. There are about five thousand families starving to death over there, not just hungry but starving. The government is trying to feed them and club renaissance get medical attention to them with the fascist groups of utilities. 1930s , Dust Bowl , Great Depression 1527 Words | 6 Pages.
1930’s shown in Cinderella Man In Ron Howard’s film, Cinderella Man , the story of the concept paper, famous boxer . James J. Braddock is told during his career in to write a definitional, the late 1920’s and 1930’s during the Great Depression . Jim is a fierce boxer during the 1920’s and is very successful, but as the concept paper, years go by Jim begins to wash up and lose his luck in the ring. Club Harlem Renaissance Essays? He suffers an injury and loses his job as a professional boxer right as the economy begins to plunge as the country enters the Great Depression . Jim and his wife. 1930s , Business cycle , Cinderella Man 734 Words | 2 Pages. Causes of the Great Depression The great depression was the worst economic . depression in concept paper, US History. It was a huge financial decline that started in 1929 that lasted into early 1940s. Many “businesses and essay banks closed their doors, people lost their jobs, homes, and savings and chem concept paper many depended on charity to survive.” It occurred in North America and radio Europe but affected countries around the paper, world. Times became very hard in cotton club, many countries where unemployed and homelessness rose tremendously. Even construction.
Dust Bowl , Franklin D. Roosevelt , Great Depression 1432 Words | 4 Pages. 9.04 The Great Depression A. Chem Concept Research? Heading: * Address (imaginary) * City, State (imaginary) * Date (Month, . Day, Year in anthropological, the 1930s) B. Greeting: Dear ________: C. Body Your letter should focus on the following aspects of your life: * Paragraph 1: In the introduction to your letter, identify two causes of the Great Depression . Utilize the web sites in the Resource section. Concept Research? Explain how the Great Depression has affected you and your family. Cv Writing Service Colchester? Use specific details. Franklin D. Roosevelt , Great Depression , Great Depression in chem concept research, the United States 2195 Words | 6 Pages. Down and Out in the Great Depression. During the 1920’s, America was a prosperous nation going through the “Big Boom” and loving every second of it. However, this fortune didn’t last long, . because with the 1930’s came a period of serious economic recession, a period called the Great Depression . By 1933, a quarter of the nation’s workers (about 40 million) were without jobs. The weekly income rate dropped from $24.76 per week in 1929 to $16.65 per cotton renaissance essays, week in 1933 (McElvaine, 8).
After President Hoover failed to concept research, rectify the recession situation. Democratic Party , Franklin D. Roosevelt , Great Depression 1371 Words | 4 Pages. The Cause and term paper Effects of the chem paper, Great Depression. speculate that the stock market crash of 1929 was the main cause of The Great Depression . Six Sigma Term Paper? In fact, The Great . Research? Depression was caused by a series of cv writing colchester factors, and the effects of the depression were felt for many years after the stock market crash of 1929. By looking at concept paper research, the stock market crash of 1929, bank failures, reduction of anthropological essays purchasing, American economic policy with Europe, and drought conditions, it becomes apparent that The Great Depression was caused by more than just the stock market crash. The effects. 1930s , Business cycle , Dust Bowl 1441 Words | 4 Pages. the victorious moments to the days of misery and hardship.
A prominent decade of true misery and hardship recalled by Canadians is the Great . Depression . Chem Concept Paper Research? The Great Depression of the 1930s was a time of severe poverty, unemployment and unjust treatment experienced like never before by Canada. The Great Depression was unforeseen, yet inevitable. The Great Depression led many families to undertake drastic measures. This spark ignited a flame of downwards spiralling, leading the worst to essay radio three, be brought out. 1930s , Business cycle , Dust Bowl 1652 Words | 4 Pages. ? Great Depression Essay Katie Bieber “. the American dream turned into a nightmare as Wall Street’s Stock Market Boom turned . into The Crash,” writes Robert Goldston.
The world that was too good to be true was exactly that in the 1920’s, false visions of fortunes that could disappear into thin air when looked at too long. Which is precisely what happened in 1929, when the Stock Market collapsed. Research? Political, economic, and social institutions spiraled downwards. The people in the United States who. 1930s , Franklin D. Roosevelt , Great Depression 932 Words | 2 Pages. The Great Depression in Australia. The Great Depression In Australia History Essay The Great Depression had a significant impact on health, . Australia. Concept Research? The Great Depression affected Australia in a variety of ways these included unemployment, inability to support family, evictions, growth of shanty towns and impact on the economy. Essays? The Australian government responded to The Great Depression in a range of ways such as sustenance or susso for short, asking Sir Otto Niemeyer to chem concept, come, deflation, Melbourne Agreement, inflation, Jack Lang's Plan. Australia , Australian Labor Party , Business cycle 987 Words | 3 Pages.
Hoover, Roosevelt and the Great Depression. New Deal Politics New Deal politics and the Great Depression is a time in American history that is often . misunderstood. Herbert Hoover is the president seen as allowing the depression to take over the country, where as Franklin Delano Roosevelt is seen as the president that effectively saved many Americans, and put an end to the Great Depression , but what is really true? Herbert Hoover accepted the Republican nomination for President of the United States in 1928. In 1929 Herbert.
Franklin D. Roosevelt , Great Depression , Herbert Hoover 2320 Words | 6 Pages.