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Business Plans for the SaaS Business Model. Comparison Contrast! Are you an entrepreneur who is looking to establish a software-as-a-service (SaaS)-based business model, but don#8217;t know where to begin? This article will help you take the first critical step: Creating a business plan. Entrepreneurs will often hear that they need a business plan if they want to succeed. Creative Writing Colleges! And it#8217;s true: A business plan is the stepping stone for most entrepreneurs trying to essay contrast, launch a new business. A business plan is a document that will help you establish your business identity and critical evaluation essay, credibility. It#8217;s a proof of concept, a pitch deck, a ladder to climb when you hit a rough patch, a compass to guide you through your journey; and most importantly, it will help you understand your business in a comprehensive way.
Investing the time and comparison contrast, energy to develop a solid and well-thought-out business plan is crucial. SaaS is all the talk these days. Help! Given the prominence of essay contrast, technology in an age driven by digitization and the Internet, the SaaS model is extremely popular. SaaS simply means that you have a software product and you#8217;re selling it as a service rather than as a one-time commodity sale. Like any subscription-based service (think gym memberships, newspapers, etc.), with a SaaS product, people subscribe to and pay a monthly, quarterly, or yearly fee depending on the business model. The pricing strategy is an essential component of a SaaS product, so you#8217;ll need to carefully consider yours. Once you have a paying customer or subscriber, you#8217;ll want to offer auxiliary services such as assistance implementing your software, periodic maintenance, product upgrades or updates, and any other services that will help you stay ahead of the competition. Creative Writing In Florida! Your software alone will only get you so far. If your service quality is not up to contrast, par, you#8217;re likely to lose your client to the competition and possibly even damage your reputation in the process. Creative Writing! So, not only do you have to focus on making sure your software hits the mark, but you also have to make sure your customer service is exceptional . What does any of this have to do with pricing? While many believe that the SaaS model will be a surefire success, many entrepreneurs sustain losses by not delivering a great end-to-end experience.
So why exactly aren#8217;t you making money from the get-go when SaaS is comparison all the article essay rage? Because of how this model operates. In order to comparison, obtain a client, you will have to incur costs, such as product development, marketing, travel expenses to visit clients, etc. Evaluation Research Essay! Furthermore, your pricing should be aligned with your competitors to some extent to attract your clients. If you want to charge a higher price than your competitors, be prepared to justify it. The subscription price will not be enough to sufficiently cover those early expenses you incur. Because you#8217;ll be providing all the auxiliary services at the same time, you#8217;ll be incurring additional expenses as well.
In essence, you should not expect to make a profit for at least 6-8 months on contrast, each client you acquire. Anthem Help! Any additional client from there will cost you more. As a result, it will take you more time to become profitable. You should consider all of these factors when determining your price. The SaaS business model is still relatively new and comparison, many entrepreneurs fail to completely grasp how it works. This often leads them to believe that they can make huge profits without realizing how tough it is to get through the initial periods.
Furthermore, it#8217;s even harder explaining this concept to potential investors. That#8217;s why you really need to creative in florida, focus your business plan on ensuring that the comparison essay contrast investor understands the concept and why you#8217;ll sustain losses in the beginning. Your business plan should be aimed at building investor confidence. Now let#8217;s get down to the SaaS specifics of thesis flowers, your business plan. Your business plan will require careful planning and detailed analysis of all facets of contrast, your business. Unlike plans for other types of businesses, the company overview for a SaaS business must include a detailed breakdown of your software. Make sure to explain: How your software is different The benefits of your software vs. College! what is currently on the market The future plans for your software Expectations on development The additional services you plan to provide to customers. This will go a long way in explaining your prices as well. The investor will want to essay contrast, see what your software brings to the table and six sigma term, if the price you#8217;re planning to charge will be acceptable to the market.
Remember, investors are very clever. Contrast! Even if they don#8217;t know your particular business, that doesn#8217;t mean they won#8217;t be looking hard at the numbers. Don#8217;t feel confident just because you have a complicated business model. You need to sell it right! In addition to writing, a detailed explanation of essay contrast, your software and services, you#8217;ll have to do thorough market research. You must really understand the pricing strategies of your competitors and the auxiliary services they provide. Knowing and understanding the article essay market trends will help you develop your strategy as well. If you know the success stories of other startup SaaS businesses, you can try to replicate them and build on them to come out even better. Determine Your Market Positioning. Next, you need to decide how you#8217;ll position yourself in essay contrast the market.
In the document, explain what exactly your software does and how it#8217;s different, what kind of support services you#8217;ll provide, and how you justify your pricing strategy. This is essay different from your product explanation mentioned earlier. This is where you quantify your software and your services. Specify Key Performance Indicators. Another important aspect of your business model will be specific ratios that are applicable to SaaS business models. This includes Customer Acquisition Cost (CAC), Lifetime Value (LTV), Monthly Recurring Revenue (MRR), and comparison contrast, Monthly Recurring Revenue Churn (MRR Churn) to name a few. CAC is a simple ratio that tells you how much it costs for you to get a customer. This is simply calculated by summing up all your direct costs (marketing costs + costs of visiting clients + any other costs incurred to get a client) and dividing it by the total number of the book i like quran essay, clients that you acquired. This can be done annually as well as monthly. Comparison Essay Contrast! LTV is the average income derived per writing in florida, customer.
This is contrast calculated by taking the acceptance total revenue earned from subscriptions and comparison contrast, dividing it by the net customer you attained during that period. MRR identifies the amount of fixed revenue that you#8217;re retaining every month. Thesis Flowers! This goes a long way in comparison showing how well you#8217;re retaining your customers. Essay Help! This is calculated by taking the net number of users for contrast one month and multiplying that by the subscription fee. The MRR Churn rate calculates how much revenue you#8217;re losing. In other words, it tells you how many customers are leaving. This is calculated in acceptance college essay a similar way as the comparison contrast MRR, except you are taking the number of customers lost during the month and multiplying that with the subscription fee. This will tell you how much revenue you#8217;re losing each month. The MRR should be greater than the MRR churn rate, otherwise you#8217;re doing something wrong. You#8217;ll need to anthem help, methodically explain your financial model to your investors. They need to understand how you#8217;re justifying the losses you#8217;ll sustain.
This will mean explaining how you plan to cover those initial losses as well. Telling your investor that this is the norm for the industry will not do them any good. Essay Contrast! You also have to tell them how you#8217;ll offset this and keep going forward. Creative Writing Colleges! They want to comparison contrast, know your plan of action in critical research article case things take a turn for the worse and comparison essay contrast, you continue to have losses. Creative Writing Colleges! In the financial section, you#8217;ll need to comparison essay, explain that the acceptance college initial losses will be offset further down the road. During the initial stages, you plan to commit yourself to comparison essay contrast, investing in getting customers and that is why you#8217;ll have to sustain losses initially. If you can#8217;t explain this to critical article, the investors in a way they can understand, they won#8217;t be likely to contrast, invest in your business. Finally, you#8217;ll need to create the critical evaluation article essay executive summary. Even though it comes first in the business plan, you#8217;ll want to work on this part last.
It#8217;s a one-page summary of your entire business plan. However, do not undervalue the power of this one page. It will greatly influence investors#8217; confidence in comparison contrast the rest of your business plan. If your executive summary is not captivating or convincing, the investor will not bother reading another word. So make sure your executive summary is a knock-out punch. Acceptance! In conclusion, if you#8217;re looking to raise funding to launch a SaaS-based business, you#8217;ll need a well-thought-out business plan to put your best foot forward and impress potential investors. Once you#8217;ve done your research on comparison, the competitive landscape and determined your pricing, you can start crafting your business plan. You#8217;ll want to put extra focus on creating a polished executive summary, detailed product explanation, and thorough pricing and financial analysis. SaaS-based products are very popular and have proven to critical evaluation article, be incredibly successful for many companies. With the essay right product and business plan, yours could be too.
This story was submitted by freelancer Muhammad Arslan Rafiq and does not constitute the views or opinions of Upwork. Muhammad Arslan Rafiq is a chartered certified accountant with bachelor's and master's degrees in finance. He heads a small financial consultancy firm that specializes in more. 6 Extremely Effective Tips to Improve Your SaaS Conversions. I Like Quran! SaaS industry is rapidly evolving. This evolution has majorly occurred because of an increase in the startups and cloud computing.
This post gives you some industry specific solutions and provides great ways to double your SaaS conversions than before. Contrast! Read More. 5 Things You Didn’t Consider in Your User Onboarding Process. User onboarding is creative writing both a powerful and terrifying concept that if you don’t get it right the essay contrast first time, you have little chance of critical, getting right again. Here are five things that you should consider with your new client onboarding process that can make your SaaS more successful. Read More. How Much Does it Cost to comparison essay contrast, Hire a Freelance Accountant? Keeping track of your day-to-day financials—not to mention the big picture of your business’s financial health—is crucial, whether you’re a startup, small business owner, or large corporation. If you’ve always handled this type of work yourself, a freelance accountant can step in and help, freeing you up to in florida, focus on your business.
But how much does it cost to hire a freelance accountant? In this article, we’ll break down some key cost factors to help you more accurately estimate the cost to hire a freelance accountant for your business. Read More. Should You Buy a Business or Start One from comparison contrast Scratch? Deciding between buying a business and starting one from term scratch is not easy.
There are pros and cons to both options, and comparison essay contrast, many successful entrepreneurs have risen from both paths. If you’re deciding whether to buy a business or launch one of your own, here are a few important questions to answer. Read More. 2015 - 2017 Upwork Global Inc. To access essential Upwork features, you'll need to update your browser.
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Compare & contrast essays
Rock Vs Rap Essays and comparison essay contrast, Research Papers. In the article Rap and Moral Character by Susan Dwyer, the subject of concern is the consequences of listening to rap music and six sigma paper, . the effect it has on moral character. The author argues that rap music contribute to essay contrast the corruption of moral character, it is misogynistic, promotes violence and street crime. In this paper I will examine the author’s claims, use of acceptance essay key concepts, and her reasoning. By doing so, I will be able to demonstrate that Dwyer’s thesis is unjust and unsupported.
In what follows. Fallacy , Funk , Hip hop music 1407 Words | 4 Pages. with Epic Records, which is part of media conglomerate Sony. And Zack, writing songs like Sleep Now in the Fire and Testify, then became one of the contrast most . influential lyricists of the decade. Research Article! Rage's music has such an innovative sound, combining rap and comparison essay, rock together and making Rapcore.
Rapcore developed in the mid to late 1980s alongside similar crossover music genre funk metal. The Book I Like Most Essay! The roots of the style can be found in comparison essay contrast, albums by i like essay bands such as Anthrax, Run DMC, the Beastie Boys, Red Hot Chili Peppers. Audioslave , Brad Wilk , Rage Against the Machine 1471 Words | 4 Pages. Albums of the Musical Group: Run-D.M.C. Derek Meade Mills History of Rock December 4, 2011 Final Term Paper RUN-DMC RUN-DMC I was in the . first semester of my senior year in high school. It was 1986 and “Walk This Way” was on the airways. Comparison! I found myself really enjoying this “ Rap ” song by this group Run-D.M.C.. I would later find out that it was an Aerosmith song re-made. At the time I didn’t and couldn’t believe it because I had never heard of Aerosmith before or any of their songs. I actually.
Aerosmith , Disco , Hip hop 535 Words | 2 Pages. blame that the gang violence, murders and suicides which that the parents believe that the music kids listen to changes their perspective about acceptance essay life. Parents . also blame that, nowadays those artist who singing rap music which always contain a lot of vulgar, melancholy and also morbid music. Rap music has some kind of hypnotic which control over comparison essay, young children. Six Sigma Term Paper! Somehow young children might believe that the things which the comparison contrast rapper sing out are good since that the rapper are famous, which that everyone. Classical music , Funk , Music 573 Words | 2 Pages. him on the “throne” of writing colleges rap . This new album of his clearly separates his new work from his old work going from a try hard main stream artist . trying to please the music community on their taste of music instead of spilling his own sound kind of rapper, to a now self-pronounced “ rap king” In his new album J Cole goes back way back to his childhood, life struggles ,relationships and reflecting on his life , as well as criticizing several other popular music figures from recent rap controversy’s , as well. Eminem , Hip hop , Hip hop music 692 Words | 3 Pages. getting ready before a game? Rap is a good type of music to listen to, because many researchers have said, if you listen to a fast, upbeat, . happy, crazy song before you perform, or get ready to play a sport, some have said it makes you play better because all of your Adrenaline is contrast rushing and you get excited. Rap is better than any other music.
This is because it pumps you up before a game, it relates to life situations, and flowers, you can express yourself and feelings into a song. Rap music gets you pumped up. Eminem , Hip hop , Hip hop music 601 Words | 2 Pages. a tool used to essay contrast raise the awareness of teen pregnancies. Term! Music is used for advertising and comparison contrast, selling products, so it is the book most quran essay only logical that it should be used to comparison . deliver knowledge to acceptance college the masses. Comparison Essay Contrast! There has been debate over six sigma term, the years of the content of rap and rock music. But as long as there are people out there going through these struggles in everyday life they will be able to understand what lesson the artist is trying to teach. These two songs targeted two different audiences, but had the same message. Abortion , Adolescence , Papa Don't Preach 1365 Words | 4 Pages.
Christian Rap vs . Contrast! Mainstream Rap I can't believe the radio is playing some of the music they play and claim its . Acceptance College! radio friendly. Its not when all you hear is sex, killing, drugs, and so forth. Some may not like rap music, but even people who do claim that rap nowadays is comparison essay not radio friendly. The Book I Like Quran! Christian Rap on the other hand brings forth a new and fresh sound to Rap music while putting Jesus in essay, the center. Most songs encourage young people to do better and make a change to six sigma term paper Life and not death. . Christian hip hop , Eminem , Gangsta rap 1291 Words | 3 Pages. D04P Dr. Escoffery RAP : It’s all the same, right?
Rap has been around for a few decades. Contrast! Some say “ rap is . Help! crap”, others think that it’s not even considered music and that people claim that it’s just poetry and it doesn’t even use a real instrument like other genres of music do. Rappers in some opinion are one of the greatest talented people. They tell their story in a way different way than other genres. Within the genres of rap , there are two specific “kinds” of rap . They are Christian. Christian hip hop , Difference , Hip hop music 1045 Words | 3 Pages. started these art forms; we are still blessed with a creative ingenuity of music called Rap , Country amp; Western.
There are many . similarities between rap and country amp; western (Camp;W). Essay Contrast! Primarily, the colleges in florida two genres of music have a strong history, different types of their music, and a unique use of the contrast performer and instruments, and at times they both romance the opposite sex. On one hand, the evaluation research history of rap music began in the early '70s and its origins and influences came from popular African. Bluegrass music , Country music , Hip hop 1078 Words | 3 Pages. Rock and Rap Does Not Have a Bad Influence on Teenagers. everybody. When was the last time you have heard someone say, I hate music.? Lately though, music has been criticized for corrupting a teenager’s mind. . Rap is being blamed for crimes and murders in cities all over the world and heavy metal is being blamed for giving teens only dark thoughts in their minds. Although the media and public criticize rap and rock music and blame it for influencing teens negatively, they actually give many teenagers an outlet from their life problems. Recently music has become.
Adolescence , Eminem , Esham 894 Words | 3 Pages. the Earth's crust, rock is usually defined as a mixture of common minerals. Rocks can be hard or soft, as small as a grain or as . large as a building. They have been an integral part of the history of mankind, first being used as tools for hunting and defense, and as a building materials to construct shelters and contrast, monuments. Combined with the effects of tectonics, weathering and i like essay, vegetation, rocks define the natural landscapes we see around us. The minerals and metals we find in rocks are essential to. Crust , Earth , Igneous rock 796 Words | 3 Pages. ? WHAT ARE ROCKS ? What are Rocks ? Making up most of . the comparison Earth's crust, rocks are usually defined as a mixture of acceptance college essay common minerals.
Rocks can be hard or soft, as small as a grain or as large as a building. Combined with the effects of weathering and vegetation (vegetation can also weather rock as the tree or bush is yanked out essay contrast, of the ground by forces of wind or by merely falling over after it has died. Acceptance! Root systems tend. Crust , Earth , Igneous rock 933 Words | 3 Pages. ?At a granular level, rocks are composed of grains of minerals, which, in comparison essay, turn, are homogeneous solids formed from a chemical compound that is . arranged in an orderly manner. The aggregate minerals forming the rock are held together by chemical bonds. The types and abundance of minerals in a rock are determined by the manner in which the rock was formed.
Many rocks contain silica (SiO2); a compound of six sigma term paper silicon and oxygen that forms 74.3% of the Earth's crust. This material forms crystals with other. Basalt , Geology , Granite 977 Words | 3 Pages. Rap : Detrimental To Our Youth “Money, cash, h**s, money, cash, chicks/Sex, murder and mayhem- romance for comparison essay, the street/Only wife of mines is . a life of crime/F*** the law, keep dealing! I led a life you can write a book on/Sex, murder and mayhem, romance for six sigma paper, the street/Man, and I tell ya, it’ll be the best seller.” (Jay Z, Money, Cash, H**s) From rapping about the ills of society and the injustice and inequality of the 1970’s to the lyrics of Jay Z, rap has taken a turn for comparison contrast, the worst. Term Paper! Although rap. Eminem , Gangsta rap , Hip hop 1121 Words | 2 Pages. The Media’s deceptive characterization of Rap Music If the average person is asked to picture an image of a rapper, images of a man with his . body covered in tattoos, wearing gold chains with smoke pouring out of his mouth and swearing to every second word he says would be some of the first things to come to his or her head.
If the person is comparison essay contrast asked again to describe how they picture a rap music video to be like, her or she would probably describe the term paper video centered on a rapper with the features previously. Eminem , Gangsta rap , Hip hop 2308 Words | 6 Pages. Estelene Stoffel November 13, 2012 Audience: Visitors of comparison essay Historical Alcatraz Island Purpose: To Inform The Rock Robert Stroud . Term Paper! “Birdman of Alcatraz”, Alvin “Creepy Karpis” Karpowicz, and Al “Scarface” Capone were only some of the notorious criminals to pass through Alcatraz Island. Surrounded by harsh currents and cold waters, Alcatraz Island was thought to be the ultimate place to keep criminals too criminal for landlocked prisons. Comparison! In the thesis for algernon early 1930s, renovations made Alcatraz a better. Alcatraz Island , Clarence Anglin , Escape 1564 Words | 4 Pages. Homework 12 Rock ‘n’ Rap Gabriel Gonzalez Block: 4 It costs the company an average of $15,000 to produce a . Comparison Essay Contrast! rock CD and an average of acceptance essay $12,000 to produce a rap CD. Also, it takes about 18 hours to produce a rock CD and comparison, about 25 hours to produce a rap CD. The company can afford to spend up to $150,000 on production next month. Also, the company will spend at least 175 hours on production. The company earns $20,000 in profit on each rock CD it produces and $30,000 in profit on flowers for algernon each rap CD it.
Compact Disc , Eminem , Equals sign 597 Words | 2 Pages. Since the comparison essay contrast late 1980's rap music has been called the anthem Anti Christ in our culture, because of it's so-called influence in people's life. People . Comparison Essay! swear up and down that the creative writing in florida music is why people, specially the youth resort to violent crimes. I think by saying this they are trying to cover up the real truth by giving simple answers. Rap is defined as a style of popular music consisting of contrast improvised rhymes performed to six sigma term paper a rhythmic accompaniment. Comparison! The first rap song was made in the late 70's, the songs were. Death Row Records , Dr. Dre , Gangsta rap 1074 Words | 3 Pages. ?Clifford F. Critical Essay! Adams Email firstname.lastname@example.org Learning Objectives – History of Rock and comparison essay, Roll Investigate the creative process: To . Essay! develop, through reading, audio and comparison essay, video presentations, and in-class demonstrations evaluative skills that aid specifically in the study of the creative process in popular music: Develop a vocabulary of most quran musical terms as an aid to discussion and understanding Grasp the fundamental musical elements of rhythm, melody and harmony Understand the emotional connection. Classroom , Final examination , Grade 997 Words | 4 Pages. ? SKILLS VS KNOWLEDGE In this present age, all around the world, the illusion that a student is smart by the information he remembers . from the teachers or from books he reads has been employed by essay our educational system which leaves the mere skillful person in evaluation essay, a lower class in comparison contrast, the society.
Students are now compared to other students by essay standardized test which rate your knowledge on what you remember and not what you know or can do. This educational system is essay contrast not good enough for everyone to. Education , Educational psychology , Intelligence 1120 Words | 6 Pages. English Rock Music Even with the advent and popularization of the book most quran essay pop, soul, Ramp;B, rap and hip-hop in the MTV era, . rock is a genre of music that has retained a wide fan base with hordes of enthusiasts since the essay late 1960s. Read on to learn of the origins of rock music and its proponents. What is flowers Rock ? Essentially Rock is an eclectic mix of a prominent vocal melody accompanied by guitar, drums, and bass. Several bands use an comparison essay contrast innovative mix of piano, synthesizers, saxophone, flute, mandolin. Bass guitar , Blues , Dream Theater 773 Words | 3 Pages. The History of Rap and paper, Censorship.
The History of Rap and Censorship The beginnings of rap are believed to comparison contrast based on African rhythms that were used as a form of . communication by the native peoples. The lyrical component of rap music is thought to thesis flowers have been greatly influenced by Cab Calloway with his repetitive chants and essay, scats, along with his call-and-response technique with the audience. Acceptance College! Rap evolved and gained in contrast, popularity in the 1960's when a few revolutionary DJ's, including Kool DJ Herc, DJ Lovebug Starski, and DJ Hollywood. Death Row Records , Dr. Dre , Gangsta rap 2204 Words | 6 Pages.
Rap is a popular type of essay music in comparison essay contrast, today's society, but it didn't just come to term be. In the 1970's rap emerged from other types of . music to essay contrast become what it is today. Rap is influenced and essay help, inspired by other types of music. Comparison Contrast! Its influences are closely related to six sigma term each other. Rap music has derived from various types of music.
In a world in which people are constantly confronted with violent acts such as rape, assault, murder, school shootings and other violence's, society is eager and anxious to comparison find and. Disc jockey , Funk , Gangsta rap 2286 Words | 6 Pages. conservative adults. This topic is, of course, Rock Music. Six Sigma Term Paper! During one week, I looked for information in comparison essay contrast, the library and at my house, and the book i like most essay, from . the information I gathered and my one knowledge about the essay contrast topic, I'm going to lead the reader to a better understanding of Rock n' Roll. I chose to do Rock music because I can identify myself with it. Rock music is very complex. In fact It's stylistic scope is to broad to be encompassed by any single definition ( Rock Music, Groliers, p.1). The nearest definition. Bass guitar , Blues , Disco 1267 Words | 4 Pages.
English Comp 1 4/21/12 Popular Culture in Rap Music The history of for algernon rap music started in Africa with rhythmic beats using . drums. From Africa to the Caribbean islands it came to America and started its influential change on American Music. The first rap song to take flight and comparison essay contrast, make its mark on the up and coming rap culture was the Sugar Hill Gang in 1979. In 1986 rap music finally reached the top of the music charts and was show on MTV for the first time featuring Run-DMC. Continuing to change. Hip hop , Hip hop music , Method Man 1037 Words | 3 Pages. but also jazz poetry. According to six sigma term paper John Sobol, the comparison jazz musician and poet who wrote Digitopia Blues, rap bears a striking resemblance to the . evolution of jazz both stylistically and formally. One of the main influences on Hip Hop artists was James Brown.
James Brown is credited for acceptance, inventing funk music in the middle '60s. Essay Contrast! The characteristic funk drum beat is the most common rhythm used for quran essay, rap music. Two of the earliest recordings which have a funk beat and comparison, lyrics which are rhymed in rhythm. African American , Funk , Hip hop 1209 Words | 4 Pages. Reggaeton and Rock are two of the genres with more booms in the world. While others say this whole controversy that has had the reggaeton in . these last days. Which of the anthem help two genres will be most appropriate for our youth and sons? Rock or reggaeton? It's a broad question and responses, as there are many songs with different messages that lead to the population in contrast, general, but especially to the youth who are most in need of positive pulses and music that magnify inside as people. Reggaeton and essay, rock were born. Alternative rock , Blues , Hardcore punk 697 Words | 2 Pages.
The Effects of Rap on Inner Cities. Today, Rap has become the most popular type of music in the US. The Rap industry is dominated by artists' who mostly dedicate . Contrast! their lyrics to either violence, drugs, or sex. Research Article Essay! Through 1998 and comparison contrast, 1999 the survey taken by essay the National Music Bureau, stated that 46% of the listeners of Rap are under the age of 19. Comparison Essay Contrast! While 65% of the listeners, live in run-down homes, or impoverished areas, usually being inner cities. The National Music Bureau also reported that in the 66% of the listeners of Rap who are. Crime , Hip hop music , Human sexual behavior 1941 Words | 5 Pages. chances You were just what the doctor ordered I'm beginning to the book i like most essay feel like a Rap God, Rap God All my people from the front to . the back nod, back nod Now who thinks their arms are long enough to slap box, slap box?
They said I rap like a robot, so call me Rapbot But for me to rap like a computer must be in my genes I got a laptop in my back pocket My pen'll go off when I half-cock it Got a fat knot from that rap profit Made a living and a killing off it Ever since Bill Clinton was still. Bill Clinton , Dr. Dre , Eminem 803 Words | 3 Pages. MUS1111: Rock Music History – Spring 2012 Mondays, Wednesdays, amp; Thursdays 10:30am-11:35 am Blackman Auditorium (Ell Hall) Professor: . Junauro Landgrebe Office: 337 Ryder Phone: 617.373.7473 Email: J.Landgrebe@neu.edu (email is preferred) Office Hours: Wednesdays 12 PM – 1 PM or by appointment Teaching Assistant: Brian Bergeron Email: RockHistoryTA@gmail.com Course Objective: Survey rock music and it’s evolution from the 1920’s through current times. We will examine. Alternative rock , English-language films , Heavy metal music 1808 Words | 7 Pages. VIOLENT AND VULGAR RAP LYRICS What happened to censorship? “Then shall we allow our children to listen to any story anyone happens to make . up, and so receive into comparison contrast their minds ideas that often the very opposite i like quran of those we shall thing they ought to have when they are grown up?” Plato, The Republic While Plato may not have had rap music to contend with, he posed a question that could be a leading concept for a society concerned with the comparison contrast impact of essay help today’s music on its kids. In. Censorship , First Amendment to the United States Constitution , Media studies 2369 Words | 7 Pages.
and Disco records, thus creating a sound that they would later transform into the music that we love and appreciate today. Essay! Both House music and Hip Hop . borrow or sample excessively from many different types of music such as Disco, Jazz, Soul, Blues, Rock , Alternative, Ramp;B in addition to live instrumentation. This could not have been done without the help of the turntable, which in both genres is the college essay cornerstone to the music, and the starting point for many artists of both genres. Hip Hop was. Disco , Funk , Hip hop 922 Words | 3 Pages. Christian Hip-hop VS Secular Hip-hop Donald Payne COM/170 6/12/12 Faith lbarra Christian Hip-hop VS Secular Hip-hop . Hip-hop is a form of popular music that’s comprised mainly of emceeing and deejaying. As hip-hop continues to comparison contrast evolve into a successful enterprise, it has emerged into the book quran trends, such as clothing styles, improper dialogue known as slang, and an overall general mindset.
While the secular industry of comparison hip-hop promotes sex, drugs, and thesis flowers, violence, to name a few; the Christian objective. Afrika Bambaataa , Hip hop , Hip hop music 1140 Words | 3 Pages. Influence of comparison contrast Rap Music Today, Rap has become the most popular type of music in the US. Many people listen to music while . they drive their cars, are at work, do housework, and study, etc. Music as we know it today is the voice of critical article essay a generation. It gives us entertainment, and speaks out for a community of people in comparison essay, many ways. Most people listen to at least some sort of music, and serve a purpose. Just about any expression can be shared through music. Rap is essay one type of fastest growing music in.
Eminem , Gangsta rap , Hip hop 1388 Words | 4 Pages. Good vs . Evil: Rock and Hip Hop Written by: Chanel Auguste In 1965, The Rolling Stones early hit, I Can't Get No . Satisfaction, is essay contrast taken off of many radio station's play lists after they received complaints of the lyrics containing sexually suggestive lyrics. 1980, Pink Floyd's hit single Another Brick in the Wall (Part II), with its chorus of creative colleges in florida kids chanting We Don't Need No Education, is banned by the South African government; Children upset about inferior education, adopt the song as. Dr. Comparison Contrast! Dre , Gangsta rap , Hip hop 4303 Words | 12 Pages. The Negative Impact of Rap Music on Today's Youth. The Negative Impact of term paper Rap Music on Today's Youth Today's rap music has changed dramatically since the 1970's. Comparison Contrast! . Rap music has become the most popular type of music in the U.S. Rap music can give people entertainment and critical research article, can also tell a story in essay contrast, someone's life. According to the American Heritage Dictionary, rap music is defined as, a style of music associated with urban street gangs and critical article, characterized by violent, tough talking, often misogynistic lyrics (Miffin, 2000). Contrast! Rap music was formed in the.
Death Row Records , Disco , Hip hop 2233 Words | 6 Pages. Rap music has made a negative influence on pop culture today. It has led to gang attacks, vulgar language and actions, and inappropriate . clothing style. Although some rap has a good meaning to it, and lets people express the way they feel, it still has impacted pop culture in a negative way. Most Quran! Everyday I see kids, even of young age, singing a rap song that uses dirty and comparison essay contrast, inappropriate words, and sagging their pants so everyone can see their butt. I Like Most Quran! Rap music gives pop culture the wrong idea about the. Gang , Gangsta rap , Hip hop 1129 Words | 3 Pages.
Country Music vs . Rap Music Today there are many different genres of music. There are many types of music for anyone. Country . and Rap music may be two most popular types of music. Many people who like country dislike rap music and the other way around. Essay Contrast! Many people who listen to rap would never listen to country or ever admit to it. On the other hand people who listen to country may enjoy some rap music. In each type of music, they have many sub-genres.
There also are many stereotypes that are associated. Academy of critical evaluation article essay Country Music , African American , Country music 551 Words | 2 Pages. defining rap music, some define it as poetry in the form of music. Even though rap music is comparison contrast thought of as a form of art, it is . highly debated as a controversial social issue. Author Sid Kirchheimer from Does rap put teens at risk makes a claim that rap music is a detriment to our youth. He believes that negative behaviors is the outcome of people watching and listening to rap music. Author Curtis Aron from Rap Music: Is It As Bad As Some People Think? Thinks otherwise and essay, claims that rap music. Eminem , Gangsta rap , Hip hop 1104 Words | 3 Pages. Since its start in the music industry around nineteen eighty-eight rap music has always been under a lot of scrutiny for its lyrics and . messages that it portrays.
Rap music has a long history starting back to the days of comparison slavery and creative writing in florida, has come a long way since then bridging gaps between all genres of music including jazz, blues, and basic drum beats. When hip hop first came about its message was simple. It was groups of comparison black men who described the life they were living in the book most essay, the ghettos all over the. African American , African American culture , Eminem 2520 Words | 6 Pages. Rap Music: A Misinterpreted Art Form By Enoch Noel Submitted to Ms. Jones Oct. Essay! 9, 2001 Oral Communication T-Th-4pm Outline Thesis Statement: . Social acceptance for rap music is my goal and in order for me to critical research article reach it, I will have to answer the contrast questions what is rap , who founded it, and how much influence does the news and media have upon rap music. Introduction I. History of Rap Music A. College! When, and who founded it? B. What is Rap music? II. Compare and contrast parent's view about rap music.
A. How. Busta Rhymes , Eminem , Hip hop 1390 Words | 4 Pages. History of Rock and Roll Mus 1006 Summer Quarter 2013 CSUEB Online Dann Zinn Course Content: This course centers on the study of . the history, trends, and influences of rock musicians and their music on society and culture. No previous musical training is required. The ultimate objective is for the student to develop a greater understanding and appreciation of contrast this great form of art and entertainment. Course Books and flowers, Resources: Required Katherine Charleton- Rock Music Styles, A. 1970s , Beat music , Elvis Presley 1060 Words | 5 Pages. ROCK MUSIC IN PROPAGANDA This essay will explore the claim that Rock music has a significant and big role in propaganda. The . claim derives its sources from the history and today’s social events.
The essay begins by summarizing the social situation of comparison 1950s and term, how Rock music occured. Comparison Essay! Then, it continues with the usage of Rock music in thesis flowers for algernon, forms of propaganda, which are black propaganda and white propaganda. In addition to this, the essay talks about in which fields Rock music is used for propaganda. Disco , Live Aid , Music 2508 Words | 6 Pages. I’m going to share my personal speculations on rap music versus, classical music.
Born in a family of Jehovah’s witnesses, I personally enjoy . all types of music, rap being the comparison only one I detest . In perspective classical music is much more soothing than rap can ever be. Thesis For Algernon! Rap tends to discredit and disfigure woman. Comparison Essay! Rap started in the late 1970’s. Rap to me is a cluster of drug dealers, and hood rats rapping telling young kids there troubled child hood stories. Six Sigma Paper! Rappers use vulgar language, that.
18th century , Eminem , Hip hop 284 Words | 2 Pages. This essay is comparison essay about the creative writing colleges history of Rock and Roll and how it changed society. Rock and Roll- A Great Movement in Music The type of music that later became known as rock and comparison contrast, roll evolved in the mid 1950's. . For Algernon! It was a combination of jazz, rhythm and blues, country, and contrast, gospel sounds. One of the reasons rock and term, roll was said to have such a great impact on society at the time was mainly due to the fact that it broke the race barriers of the time. During the 1950's, the greater part of the United States, in particular the South, was segregated, with blacks on one side and whites. Blues , Funk , Rock and comparison, roll 729 Words | 3 Pages. instruments. For example in the steel pedal guitar can be plays the lead riff in “Country Roads” by John Denver. It can also be heard in evaluation research article, “Wild Horses” by . the Flying Burrito Brothers. Along with the pedal steel guitar another essential of essay country and folk rock is a acoustic guitar which can be heard through these albums and is the base for this genre. John Denver used Guild and Yamaha guitars, Neil Young played a Les Paul and Hank Williams Martin D-28.
Some artists will use a variety of instruments, for. Country music , Country rock , Creedence Clearwater Revival 958 Words | 3 Pages. A History Paper- Rock ?n' Roll Many people and many styles of music influenced Rock and Roll. The styles included Blues, Jazz, . Gospel, Bluegrass, Boogie-Woogie, and the book i like quran, Rockabilly. Each was a major factor into comparison the introduction of essay a new style of music called Rock ?N' Roll. Popular music places a premium on accessibility, represents various meanings to boost both instant appeal and memorability - distinctive tunes, novel instrumental flourishes, danceable rhythms, repeated riffs - but its signal feature. American styles of music , Blues , Jazz 1171 Words | 4 Pages. Murphy Alexander @02660619 Similarities Between Rap and comparison essay contrast, Poetry Poetry and rap have been around for many years and have been . used to appeal to term paper the senses of audience members of many different ages, races, cultures. Poetry and rap are similar in many unique ways.
One may look upon poetry and rap as two different genres, however, rap can actually be classified as a form of modern day poetry. Rap often talks about contrast different ideas and i like quran, subjects than most poems, however they hold similar formats to poetry. Alliteration , Genre , Hip hop 429 Words | 2 Pages. The Negative Impact of Rap on Todays Youth. are listening to or the essay effect that it has on them.
Many individuals put much of their critical focus on flowers forms of music that get a bad reputation, like . rap . Essay! Many rap artists include curse words or outwardly promote haram (unacceptable) activities. But few in society seem to look carefully at the book quran what are considered “appropriate” music genres like rock /pop. Pink, a very well known pop artist, has a song titled “Get This Party Started.” In the comparison first verse she relates: “Get this party started on a Saturday. Cognitive science , Consciousness , Mind 785 Words | 3 Pages. Often times when people hear about Hip Hop/ Rap music, they’ll paint a picture in their heads of black men cussing, guns, marijuana, lots of essay help . gold, and girls looking like prostitutes.
Parents and teachers put an essay contrast image in their kid’s head that Rap music is “bad”, and they don’t want their kids to paper be influenced by something that is comparison negative. With the way Rap music is advertised in the US, I would have to agree with that looking at it from an average parent’s point of flowers for algernon view. Comparison Contrast! But what people don’t. Disc jockey , Funk , Gangsta rap 915 Words | 3 Pages. Music vs . Rock Music As I grew up my dad had some rules that everyone that wanted to live in thesis flowers for algernon, the house had to follow. One of . those rules was that every individual growing in the house had to essay learn how to play an instrument.
When I was growing up, I loved to listen to rock music and flowers, used to imagine myself playing the guitar so I told my dad I wanted to comparison contrast play the guitar and he enrolled me in essay help, a classical guitar class. Contrast! Let me tell you something I had to learn the hard way, classical music and rock music. Baroque guitar , Blues , English-language films 464 Words | 2 Pages. explain how rock cycle operates. How do rocks metamorphose at destructive plate boundary? Rock cycle is a cycle . that describes how rocks are transformed. Igneous rock can change into anthem essay sedimentary rock or metamorphic rock . Sedimentary rock can change into metamorphic rock or into igneous rock . Metamorphic rock can change into igneous or sedimentary rock . Besides, metamorphism at the destructive plate boundaries creates different characteristics of rocks . Operation of the rock cycle The Rock Cycle . Basalt , Geology , Igneous rock 939 Words | 4 Pages. “Evolution of Rock ” Rock music has evolved into many different styles throughout time, some styles are very similar and comparison contrast, some . Anthem! are extremely different, but all have their own unique sound. The point of my research is to comparison essay contrast educate other students on some of the in florida main styles of rock and rock legends and how they came to be. Folk Rock Folk rock is a musical genre combining elements of both folk and rock music. Essay! It is very similar in acceptance, content as folk music but incorporated with a few touches of rock music such.
Album-oriented rock , Alternative rock , Electric guitar 894 Words | 3 Pages. Origin of Rap Music and its Dependance on High Technology. ?Roughly fifteen years ago, the comparison essay initial rumblings of rap music were eminating from the streets of New York City. Rap music is . very much a product of its urbanized, literacy-based environment, as can be seen in the advanced technology necessary to produce the music. Although the connection between rap music and its modern roots is impossible to ignore, rap's dependence upon high technology is often over-emphasized, eclipsing any opportunity to connect rap culture to a time before the world of turntables. Epic poetry , Gangsta rap , Hip hop 2692 Words | 5 Pages. Formation of Rocks The three main ways rocks are formed: • Sedimentary rocks are formed through the gradual . accumulation of six sigma term sediment: for example, sand on a beach or mud on a river bed. As the sediment is buried it is compacted as more and more material is deposited on top.
Eventually the sediment will become so dense that it is essentially rock . This process is comparison contrast known as lithification. • Igneous rocks are rocks which have crystallized from a melt or magma. The melt is made up of various components. Crust , Earth , Geology 1471 Words | 5 Pages. The Rock Cycle Classification of Rocks The rock cycle is the formation, breakdown and reformation of a . Acceptance! rock as a result of sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic processes. The rock cycle is an comparison illustration that is used to describe how the three rock types are related and how Earth processes change a rock from one type to six sigma paper another over time. Each group contains a collection of rock types that differ from essay each other on the basis of the college size, shape and comparison, arrangement of mineral grains.
Due to critical research the driving. Igneous rock , Metamorphic rock , Mineral 1100 Words | 4 Pages. The History of contrast Punk Rock What comes to your mind when you hear the word “punk?” Do you think of the book i like a violent, attention-seeking young person, . or do you think of a rebellious teenager who is trying to go against essay contrast the mainstream society? “Punk is about being 16 and thesis flowers, saying no.” According to essay Encarta Dictionary: English, punk is a youth movement of the late 1970s, characterized by term paper loud aggressive rock music, confrontational attitudes, body piercing, and unconventional hairstyles, makeup, and essay contrast, clothing. Alternative rock , Hardcore punk , Heavy metal music 1871 Words | 6 Pages. Igneous rocks The second type of college essay rock we'll look at essay contrast is igneous rock . Formation The inside of the Earth is very . hot - hot enough to term melt rocks . Molten (liquid) rock forms when rocks melt. Comparison Contrast! The molten rock is called magma. When the magma cools and solidifies, a type of rock called igneous rock forms. What are they like? Igneous rocks contain randomly arranged interlocking crystals. Colleges! The size of the crystals depends on how quickly the molten magma solidified. The more slowlythe magma cools, the bigger.
Igneous rock , Magma , Metamorphic rock 1657 Words | 6 Pages. Igneous rock From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article needs additional citations for comparison contrast, verification. Please help improve this . article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and evaluation research, removed. (November 2012) Geologic provinces of the world (USGS) Shield Platform Orogen Basin Large igneous province Extended crust Oceanic crust: 0–20 Ma 20–65 Ma 65 Ma Igneous rock (derived from the Latin word ignis meaning fire) is one. Basalt , Granite , Igneous rock 1890 Words | 7 Pages.
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Analytical essay of Raymond Carver#8217;s #8220;Cathedral#8221; Essay. Comparison Essay! Blindness can manifest itself in many ways. Arguably the most detrimental form of this condition may be the figurative blindness of ones own situations and paper, ignorance towards the feelings of others. In Raymond Carver#8217;s short story #8220;Cathedral,#8221; the narrator#8217;s emotional and comparison, psychological blindness is immediately apparent. The many issues faced by the narrator as well as the the book most essay, turn-around experienced at the culmination of the tale are the main ideas for the theme of this story; and these ideas aid the narrator in eventually succumbing to character transformation by simply regarding the literal blind man in a positive light.
The narrators statement at the very beginning of the essay contrast, story explains his own lack of knowledge concerning physical blindness. His lack of knowledge relating to the visitors disability is thesis undeniable, yet he makes it very clear that he is essay contrast aware of this ignorance, stating that he wasnt enthusiastic about his visit. He was no one I knew. And his being blind bothered me. My idea of blindness came from the movies.
In the movies, the blind moved slowly and never laughed. Sometimes they were led by seeing-eye dogs. A blind man in my house was not something I looked forward to.#8221; (90) These statements sum up his entire attitude about Robert (the houseguest) and other blind people in general at the onset of the story, giving the narrator an instant feeling of exactly who the narrator and even what he may turn out to be. While there are many undertones concerning other things about which he is unaware, the the book i like, specific topic of character awareness is the main thought of the storys plot, ultimately developing into a solid theme. The introduction of the comparison, story explains the relationship between narrators wife and evaluation article, the blind man, detailing how it evolved to its present status. It is here the reader may see other examples of the figurative blindness from which the narrator suffers because of his knowledge of the relationship between the two, which seem to comparison essay contrast stem from his own troubled relationship with his wife. His wife gives him an ultimatum for acceptance of the blind man, stating that if her husband loves her, he would do this for me. If you dont love me, okay. (92) Throughout the six sigma, story the narrator exudes jealousy toward the relationship his wife and the blind man share. Insecurity gives way to a troubled relationship with his wife. The narrator revaluates his suspicious ideas regarding the troubled relationship; and his ultimate personal transformation gives way to essay contrast the foreshadowing of i like quran essay a profound epiphany surrounding the entire story. Drug and alcohol usage throughout the entire story significantly adds to another blindness of which the subject is comparison contrast oblivious.
Once Robert arrives, he is immediately introduced to social drinking, especially when he is questioned for his choice of drink. The narrator quickly supports this inquiry by further explaining that he and his wife carry a little of everything. Six Sigma Term! It#8217;s one of our pastimes.#8221; (94) From this point on in the plot, drug and alcohol usage is described. The final enlightenment experienced by the narrator is a direct result of the mindset brought upon by his marijuana usage. In fact, many of his described problems may be attributed to his drinking and drug use. The effects of comparison essay these habits are shown very well as the narrator and Robert converse directly after smoking a marijuana cigarette: #8220;I reached for my glass. But it was empty. Critical Essay! I tried to remember what I could remember.#8221; (98) This exact portion of the dialogue accurately describes that of someone who is essay under the influence of a foreign substance.
Once presented, the negative effects of drug usage on the characters are obvious throughout the story. The story climaxes after the wife falls asleep and the two men are finally allowed to converse with each other. It is at this time when the narrator finally gets to creative writing colleges in florida see the attitude and thoughts of the blind man, leading directly to essay his own personal transformation. When Robert asks whether or not the the book quran essay, narrator is religious, his ambiguous response #8220;I guess I dont believe in it. Comparison Essay! In anything. Sometimes its hard.
You know what I#8217;m saying?#8221; (99) leads the reader (and Robert, as well) to see that this man is in need of something which means more than physical blindness. The reader becomes aware that this blind man feels it necessary to help the acceptance, narrator both mentally and contrast, emotionally, bringing justice and understanding to a man filled with petty ideals. Once Robert has fulfilled this deed, the narrator begins to understand that certain positions of thesis for algernon his are, and always has been, wrong, leading to an ultimate revelation towards change. Many among society today have a minute understanding of what it is to truly see, that this initiative is more than physical viewing and bases itself mainly on emotional understanding, for instance, figuratively seeing what is inside other people, what they feel and how they think. Conclusively, the final drawing of the Cathedral truly helps the reader understand the meaning of comparison essay contrast achievement through working together.
The two men hold hands while drawing the Cathedral, which inevitably is the basis for thesis flowers, the story being told. If not for this truly life-changing experience, this narrator would simply have continued on his close-minded lifestyle never learning about or accepting other people as they are. Essay! The last few sentences of flowers for algernon this story paint a beautiful picture of someone coming to the realization that being blind is not an essay contrast, affliction that is limited solely to the body. A person can be blind to the feelings of others and the problems that can affect our everyday life, yet through interaction and tolerance an individual can find both themselves and an awareness for creative writing colleges, people around them. Carver, Raymond. Cathedral Literature and its writers.
4th ed. Ed. Ann Charters and essay, Samuel Charters. Boston: Bedford/St. Martins,2007. Creative! 91-113. University/College: University of Arkansas System. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 18 July 2016.
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essays by marx by Harold Laski. This work has been published at the expense of the Tulloch and Barr Publishing Fund, instituted as a Memorial of Lieut William Tulloch and Capt. Hugh Barr, M.B., R.A. M.C., two members of the Fabian Society who lost their lives in the Great War. No name in the history of social ideas occupies a place more remarkable than that of Karl Marx. Save Machiavelli and Rousseau, no thinker has been the subject of a condemnation so unsparing, and, like Rousseau, it has been his fortune to preside after death over a revolution conceived in his name. His books have received from a chosen band a scrutiny as earnest as ever the Bible or the Digest have obtained. Yet the precise grounds of the position he occupies among Socialists is a more complex problem than is usually assumed. His theory of value is no more than a formidable adaptation of a concept already worked out in comparison full by anthem a group of comparison essay contrast English predecessors. Evaluation Research Article Essay! Men like Harrington and James Madison realized, hardly less clearly than he, the significance of the materialist interpretation of history.
His appreciation of the fact of class antagonism had been anticipated in detail by Saint-Simon. Even his passionate sympathy with the inarticulate aspirations of the worldling class was no more profound than that of Charles Nail and Owen and John Stuart Mill. His position, indeed, cannot be appreciated unless it is seen in its historical perspective. Born between too revolutions, he utilized the method produced by the reaction from the excesses of France to the service of its fundamental principles. The disciple of Hegel, he was the comparison first of those who felt his master's influence to apply his dialectic to the analysis of social facts. Hardly less important was the material of which he made use. Beginning to i like quran essay, write when the full implications of capitalism were becoming visible, he utilized its own description of its economic consequences as the proof of its moral inadequacy.
The evidence was impressive and comparison, complete; and the induction therefrom of a social order at once new and inevitable, suited to a nicety the yearnings of thesis his generation. The main result of the Hegelian movement was to lend a new sanction to philosophic conservatism. The impact of the revolutionary wars seems to have turned the mind of its founder towards the justification of established order. In that sense, Hegel is a chief of reactionary romanticism, and his affinity to men like Burke and Savigny is obvious. Yet the essence of contrast Hegelianism is, at the same time, the idea of evolution, and, to an age which, as with de Maistre, was chiefly concerned with finding the basis of a permanent social scheme the notion of evolution was a definitely radical one. College Essay! For Hegel insists on the impermanence of institutions. Each age is its predecessor with a difference.
There is a change of essay contrast tone and outlook, a tendency to emphasize the antithesis of what has been characteristic of the earlier period. The Book Essay! To the period of religious intensity there succeeds the age of religious indifference; Bossuet begets Voltaire, as Lord Eldon implies the reforming zeal of comparison essay Henry Brougham. The law of life is the warring of contradictions, with growth as its consequence. This process, which Hegel called dialectic, is, as it were, a kind of rhythm which moves from the concrete hardness of some definite idea to its opposite; from that repulsion it shifts towards a synthesis in which the two first stages interpenetrate each other to form a new concept by their union. This notion is the ruling method of Marxian thought. Creative! Obviously enough, it provides a means whereby the foundations of any given social system may be criticized at their base.
For if we can be certain that any interpretation of a period is necessarily a partial view, we have only to emphasize its antithesis to call forth the possibility of contrast a new standpoint. Hegelianism, for six sigma term paper, example, might insist on the moral adequacy of the Prussian State. But under its very banner, Young Germany might make protest against its rigorous impermeability to freedom. Comparison Essay Contrast! Where Hegelian doctrine had emphasized birth and position, Young Germany could point to the frustration of talent and the tragedies of the poor. Where it insisted on thesis for algernon the value of religion, the newer thinkers might question the very foundations of faith. The disciples of Hegel, in fact, turned the weapons of their master to the service of a cause he had denied.
Strauss and Feuerbach, Bruno Bauer and Heine are essentially a part of the comparison essay same general tendency of which Marx is the representative in acceptance social ideas. They are the heralds of revolt against the reaction. Their difference from Marx consists in their failure to essay, see the anthem political implications of their position. Marx grasped: them from the outset; and the Hegelian dialectic in his hands is an effort at the overthrow of the existing social order. The time, indeed, was singularly fitted for the ideas of which he was the protagonist. The shadow of two French Revolutions bestrode Europe like a colossus; and the very reaction they had provoked was compelled to make grudging concessions to ensure even its temporary survival. The mood of the people was everywhere bitter and discontented; and the criticism of existing institutions secured a widespread and eager welcome. In France, the work of Saint-Simon and Fourier and Enfantin had shown how prolific of comparison contrast novelty the revolution remained; and its influence was hardly less apparent in the new liberalism of Sismondi and the Catholic experiments of Lamennais. England was in the throes of a convulsion not the less profound because it was silent. Bentham had at last come into his own; and, under the stress of his urgent protests English institutions were being transformed into the organs of a middle-class state. The relics of feudalism had at thesis flowers last submitted to the assaults of Ricardo and his school; and the newborn industrialism, even if, to an observant eye, it seemed but the grim doctrines of Calvin translated to an economic sphere, completely altered the atmosphere of social life.
The revolution, indeed, did not achieve its purpose without suffering As early as 1805, Charles Hall had uttered a remarkable protest against the implications of the new civilization and that half-forgotten school of economists who form a link between the individualism of Bentham and the co-operation of Owen, were riddling its protective armour in the name of social justice. The masses had regarded the Reform Act of 1832 as the prelude to the greatest happiness of the greatest number; and comparison essay, their disappointment expressed itself in the revolutionary activity of the trade unions and the formation of the Chartist movement. Thinkers like William Thompson and J. F. Bray, noble-minded agitators like Francis Place and William Lovett, are every whit as indicative of the new capitalism as the great merchants and the incredible machines of Lancashire and Yorkshire. The Industrial Revolution reaped what it had sown. It ground a whole generation into intolerable despair, and thesis flowers, dreams of its destruction were the contrast sole refuge of its victims. Those dreams were the background which made possible the emergence of Karl Marx. They gave him the foundation of his social philosophy. Karl Marx was born at i like most Treves on May 5th, 1818, of Jewish parents who were descended on both sides from rabbinic ancestors.
Neither his father, who was a lawyer, nor his mother seems to have had any special ability; and Marx himself was the only one of several children who attained intellectual distinction. When he was six years old, the family was converted to comparison essay, Christianity, not, it appears, from any desire to the book quran, avoid the stigma then attached to the Jewish faith, but as a result of that romantic idealizing of Christianity of which Chateaubriand was the most famous representative. It is not easy to measure exactly what influence this change had upon Marx. If it later opened to him avenues that would otherwise have been closed, he never availed himself of them. To the end of his life he remained something of an anti-Semite; but this does not seem traceable to any emotion of apostasy. Marx's childhood was passed in the normal atmosphere of a patriotic lawyer's life. His father was a zealous Prussian, to whom the essay contrast defeat of Napoleon offered the opportunity, of which his son did not take advantage, of a lyrical hymn to Prussian victory. He went to the grammar school of his native town, where his ability was immediately marked by his teachers. There too, he was. intimate with the Privy Councillor, von Westphalen, whose house was a kind of salon for the intellectual youth of Treves. At least Marx learned there a love of literature and the dedication of his doctor's thesis is testimony to his grateful regard for his future father-in-law. For even before his departure, in 1835, to Bonn University, he had become secretly engaged to thesis flowers for algernon, Jenny von Westphalen, whose beauty and strength of mind had awakened in him an affection which did not diminish through life.
Marx remained a year in Bonn, studying jurisprudence; but he seems to have devoted himself to the more convivial side of the University, and it was not until his removal to Berlin, in 1836, that he threw himself into intellectual work.. Berlin was then at the very height of its reputation; and the influence of Hegel was still paramount in its instruction. Comparison Essay! No sort of for algernon learning seems to have come amiss to Marx. History and philosophy geography and jurisprudence, literature and Aesthetic, all of them aroused in him the typical enthusiasm of an comparison contrast, undergraduate in search of omniscience. Nor--it is a grateful thought--did he fail to thesis for algernon, write poetry; and if his verses are a fair index to comparison contrast, his state of mind, he was full of a restless insatiability for knowledge, and a zealous desire to solve the acceptance college essay problems of the universe, from which at least there must have been derived many hours of happy work. Comparison Contrast! He tried his hand at composing philosophic systems. He attempted to compile an outline of jurisprudence.
He went hardly at all into society, and it was not until the winter of 1837 that his experiments resolved themselves into a settled system. He surrendered the neo-idealism of Kant and took refuge in a complete acceptance of creative writing colleges in florida Hegelian metaphysic. That this change represented for him a very real mental crisis is evident from the passionate, if turgid, letter to his father of November 10th, 1837. There he summarizes the intense struggle through which he had passed, the desire to dive into the deeps of the ocean . . . Comparison Essay! bringing up chaste pearls into the sunlight. He was ill and troubled. His poems and short stories were burned; he sought escape from the thesis flowers for algernon seductions of Hegel in discussion at the Graduates' Club, only to find himself the more securely enmeshed therein. It is the typical intellectual history of an ardent mind, conscious of great powers, and eager to secure a foothold from which to survey the universe.
Not unnaturally, it greatly disturbed his father. He, good man, was anxious above all to see Karl at work in a lawyer's office, or, even better, in Government service. Why did he not do as other students, attend his lectures, meet the right people, and embark upon comparison his future career? He did not understand this mental torment save to see that it involved physical ill-health and a good deal of miscellaneous reading totally unconnected with the law. But Marx's ideals had already passed beyond so pedestrian an existence; and his father seems to have reconciled himself to the new ambitions. Marx determined upon a University post, and for that purpose devoted himself to the study of flowers for algernon philosophic jurisprudence. With friends like Bruno Bauer and Friedrich Koppen, he buried himself in study and contrast, discussion. A thesis was written on the philosophical systems of Democritus and Epicurus, and in 1841 Marx became a doctor of the University of Jena. He rejoined Bauer at Bonn and awaited the offer of a lectureship in the University. Had that offer come, the history of European Socialism might have been very different. But the Prussian educational system did not look with affection upon eager young men whose views did not square with orthodox teaching.
The post did not arrive, and it was shortly enough obvious that it was not likely to writing colleges in florida, arrive. Essay Contrast! An academic career being thus impossible, Marx set to work to find a living in journalism, and in 1842 an opportunity of an term, attractive kind presented itself. The first number of the Rheinische Zeitung was published on January 1st, 1842, and Marx was a warm friend of the editor, who had met him at the Graduates' Club in Berlin. Invited to assist, he wrote philosophical articles which not only essay contrast brought him to the notice of a wider circle, among whom were men like Feuerbach and Moses Hess, but also secured for for algernon, him the direction of the journal on the retirement of its first editor in comparison contrast the next October. For Algernon! Thereby Marx was compelled to deal, and for the first time, with immediate political issues. He came into contact with French and German Socialism, then in essay their Utopian stage.
The agrarian problem in the Rhine provinces and the discussion of the tariff, gave him the first stimulus to investigate economic questions. French socialist ideas were already being discussed in most essay the paper, but Marx, as always, determined upon a thorough grasp of the issue, did not as yet pronounce upon their worth. An editor who takes time to comparison, make up his mind is the book i like, obviously lost; and comparison essay contrast, the directors of the creative colleges paper decided to essay, make a change in six sigma term paper its management. Marx, who had just married, seems to have resigned without regret, and to have buried himself for comparison, the next two years in those economic studies from which he emerged a Socialist. Of the inner history of those years we know practically nothing. Certain alone it is that as early as May, 1843, he detected within society a breach which the old system cannot heal; and it was not long before he showed in his letters an intimate knowledge of Fourier, Proudhon and Cabet.
Already he had done with Utopias; the problem was to writing colleges, explain the struggles and yearnings of the time. In the winter of 1843, when he had settled with his wife in Paris, he wrote the comparison essay introduction to acceptance college essay, Hegel's Philosophy of Law, which remains, perhaps, his profoundest piece of technical criticism. Already he was thinking in terms of comparison essay revolution, and essay, insisting that the comparison task of the in florida proletariat was to free itself from the existing social order. Essay Contrast! Poverty he viewed, thus early, as the artificial product of essay a bourgeois society; and comparison contrast, the denial of the right to private property had become for him the fundamental avenue of release. But we catch glimpses only of this time. All that can be said with certainty is the fact that reflection had made him a Socialist. He had realized, too, the inadequacies of the abstract remoteness of French Socialism.
He had seen that the political state was, at any given time, the reflection in structure of the ideas of that epoch. He had realized that the main need was to anthem essay, make plain to the mass of men the implications of the essay state, and the end to which their half-conscious struggle should lead them. His thought, indeed, was abstract enough, and still fettered within the narrowly walls of the Hegelian dialectic. But at least it was moving forward. Meanwhile, the problem of how to live had still to be solved. He had gone to the book i like quran essay, Paris in October, 1843, to become editor of the Franco-German Year Books . But that periodical lasted only for a single issue, and, for comparison essay contrast, Marx, its chief importance was the appearance therein of a long and frankly, bad article by Friedrich Engels on political economy. The article led to correspondence between them, and in the autumn of 1844, Engels went to Paris to paper, visit Marx. That visit was the commencement of a friendship which even death did not terminate. Friedrich Engels was the son of a rich manufacturer in the Rhineland. His father owned a cotton mill near Manchester, to which, in comparison 1842, Engels had been sent to study English business conditions.
He was already an eager critic of social conditions, and how carefully he observed the life about him, his Condition of the the book i like essay Working Classes in England in 1844, which he published in 1845, bears witness. A sympathizer with the Chartist Movement, and a contributor to Owen's New Moral World , he was exactly in the frame of mind to be receptive to Marx's ideas. And his personal qualities admirably fitted him to be the complement of Marx. Thoroughly loyal, without an atom of essay personal ambition, generous, and self-effacing, practical and energetic, he brought to Marx all the necessary characteristics of a Fidus Achates. His unstinting literary assistance hardly less than his constant financial aid were the materials which determined Marx's future career. It is, indeed, almost impossible to essay, disentangle the essay labours of the two. Clearly enough, it was to Engels that Marx owed both his knowledge of English blue-books as a source of economic theory, and his introduction to the work of the English socialist school. Without Engels, too, it would have been difficult for Marx to undertake the research to which the first volume of the Capital bears witness; and the posthumous publication of the two latter volumes was the tribute that Engels paid to the memory of his master. That Marx would have been an important figure without Engels is clear enough; but the aid rendered by the latter made all the difference between the comparative calm of critical London and the restless wanderings of which hapless exiles like Bakunin were the miserable victims.
The sudden end of the Franco-German Year Books made Marx turn to more solid production. The Holy Family (1845) is comparison essay, important, not only because it contains the first clear outline of the anthem essay materialistic conception of history, but also because its attack on comparison essay Bruno Bauer is evaluation research article, evidence that Marx had already broken with the young Hegelians. He had come to place all his faith in the significance of mass-movements. where Bauer believed that the ideas by which mankind is moved cannot hope for more than superficial understanding from the mass and depend for their success upon the efforts of great men. Simultaneously, also, he was answering Ruge's attacks upon the German proletariat with an impassioned defcnce of socialism and revolution. Weitling is held up as proof of proletarian virtue against the mediocrity of the political literature of the German bourgeoisie. And in the polemic against Ruge it is insisted that the time for political revolution, the contrast only revolution of which the German bourgeoisie is capable, had passed; the capacity of Geimany is the capacity of its workers, and it is to a social revolution that Marx directs attention. This Paris period is important not only for the advent of Engels.
Mingling with the German workers then living in Paris, Marx naturally met those who were already in creative sympathy with his own views. From them to Proudhon was a natural step, for Proudhon was already the dominant socialist influence in France. Proudhon was interested in the Hegelian dialectic, and he and Marx spent countless hours in comparison essay contrast discussing its application to social science. But this fruitful intercourse was interrupted by his expulsion from France (January, 1845) at the demand of the Prussian Government. Marx went from Paris to Brussels, where he remained, but for short intervals, until the outbreak of the revolution of 1848. Engels gave him a selection of anthem his library and Marx devoted himself to the composition of comparison essay his singularly able and unpleasant criticism of Proudhon.
This was published in 1847, and it may be said to mark his transition to the book essay, the full vigour of his matured philosophy. Proudhon's reputation as a social philosopher has undergone an interesting reconstruction in our own day. (1) As an economist he has hardly survived the analysis of Marx. A self-taught man, originally a printer, he came into prominence by the publication, in 1840, of his prize essays What is Property ? in which, with much brilliance of style and no small genius for paradox, he repeated in comparison the economic sphere the substance of those criticisms of social organization which Rousseau had expressed in a prize essay not less famous. But Proudhon's aspirations were not limited by his knowledge. With undoubted ability and with a real gift of social insight, he yet lacked that rigorous training in the method of intellectual inquiry without which the production of a logical system is rarely possible. Critical Evaluation Article Essay! Discovering the work of Hegel, he attempted an interpretation of social life in essay contrast terms of the dialectic. It is, broadly, a mass of ill-arranged jargon with some brilliant asides. But the college essay work was written while in contact with Marx, and the Philosophie de la Misère is the exposition of exactly that type of Utopia-mongering which aroused Marx's anger.
It depended for its success mainly upon the unconscious ease with which it determines the essay most complex economic problems, and the reckless certitude of its own conclusions. It is, indeed, at the same time, a very attractive book. Proudhon realized, not less keenly than Marx, the evils of capitalism, and he was not less anxious to point the way to writing colleges in florida, an economic order of which the motives were freedom and justice. In the Du Principe Fédératif and the Justice dans la Revolution , indeed, he outlined a type of federalism of comparison essay which the suggestiveness is critical research, immense; and it would be legitimate to argue that not the least significant source of the contrast ancestry of Guild Socialism could be traced to his; writings. But the conflict between Marx and Proudhon was an inevitable one. At bottom, the ideals of acceptance college Proudhon were those of a peasant socialism, in which the authority of a central state was reduced to a minimum; he was reformist in outlook, despite the vigour of comparison contrast his phrases, and his economic views were always subordinate to certain ethical assumptions. Marx was the typical representative of the new industrialism, and the source of change for anthem help, him was solely to be traced to developments in industrial technique.
Authoritarian and materialist in both outlook and temper there was no real contact between Proudhon and himself. Marx, moreover, was a trained scholar, to whom the luxuriance of Proudhon's speculations was never an adequate substitute for fact. He was able without difficulty to show that Proudhon understood neither the theory of value nor the process of production. At bottom, as he insists, Proudhon had done little more than urge, first that labour was the source of value, and next that riches and poverty co-exist. Proudhon could see that the source of economic injustice lay somewhere within the system of production, but he could not, with any clarity, explain its development. Contrast! Marx overwhelmed him with ridicule, abuse, and sarcasm, and it must be admitted that from the standpoint of an economist, right is on his side. And Marx's answer, the Poverty of Philosophy , is noteworthy also for its firm grasp of the economic processes of history and for his insistence upon the part that an oppressed class has always played in the development of any system founded upon class antagonism. Creative Writing! But the main value of the book consists less in any positive doctrine that it announces than in the atmosphere by which it is permeated. It is comparison contrast, definitely revolutionary, and acceptance essay, it is revolutionary because it is historical.
Its lesson is the argument that social evolution implies economic revolution. That was a new note to strike in the history of European Socialism. The controversy with Proudhon was the natural prelude to the Communist Manifesto . It had been evident to Marx, for several years before 1848, that Europe was on essay contrast the verge of revolt. Research Article! England was passing through a period of intense agitation. Socialism was growing in Germany by leaps and bounds; and the lyrical falsifications of Lamartine seemed to the Paris workmen infinitely preferable to the mediocre corruption of comparison essay contrast Guizot and Louis Philippe. I Like Essay! Marx, indeed, did not see that the political situation was far too complex to admit of an interpretation in uniform terms. Democratic nationalism like that of Mazzini, individualist republicanism like that of Ledru-Rollin, such hostility to dynastic oppression as Kossuth embodied, state socialism as typified by Louis Blanc--the forces of upheaval were too various and incompatible to admit of any continuous co-operation. Bitterly as the worker might resent the consequences of comparison essay industrialism he had not vet reached the stage where the seizure of the book political power for economic ends seemed to contrast, him the one ideal worthy of attainment.
And he was to essay help, no small degree, still attracted by contrast the kind of unrealistic thinking of which Robert Owen was so prolific, the sense that the difficulties of the time might be evaded by evaluation article extra-political organization. Marx realized that this attitude was definitely unconstructive. The seizure of the State was to him the starting point of successful effort, and when Frederic William IV summoned the United Assembly in February, 1847, it was not unnatural for him to assume that the hour for action was at hand. From the contrast outset of his life in creative writing colleges Brussels Marx had mingled with the German socialist residents there. Comparison Essay Contrast! He had come into critical research essay contact with the League of the Just, an organization of German workers with branches in the chief European towns. Essay Contrast! This society, founded in 1836, had in 1840 moved its headquarters to London, probably to escape the unwelcome attentions of the political police. The attention of the London group had been drawn to Marx by term paper the members in Paris and Brussels. The London branch commissioned inquiries to be made about him, and when the first Congress of the League was held in London in the summer of essay contrast 1847, Engels and Wilhelm Wolff, the the book most latter, through Engels, a disciple of Marx, were present at its deliberations. Engels had spent the year in efforts at revolutionary propaganda in Paris and the Rhineland; and essay, it is probably due, in the main, to him that the League of the Just was transformed into the Communist League. The ground was thus prepared for Marx, who appeared at the second Congress, also in London, in December, 1847.
Engels had already conferred with him as to the ground to be taken there; and he had sent Marx the outline of the book quran essay a programme to be offered to the Congress for acceptance. Engel's outline contains the substance of the famous manifesto; but it lacks the ringing challenge and firm grasp of its successor. Comparison Essay Contrast! At the Congress, Marx and Engels were commissioned to draw up a programme. They were prepared for the effort; and the German edition of the Communist Manifesto appeared a few days before the outbreak of the Paris revolution. It is creative colleges, not easy to over estimate the significance of the Manifesto. It gave direction and essay, a philosophy to what had been before little more than an acceptance essay, inchoate protest against injustice. It began the long process of contrast welding together the scattered groups of the essay disinherited into an organized and influential party. Essay! It freed Socialism from its earlier situation of a doctrine cherished by conspirators in defiance of government and gave to it at once a purpose and an historic background.
It almost created a proletarian consciousness by giving, and for the first time, to the workers at once a high sense of their historic mission and a realization of the dignity implicit in their task. It destroyed at a stroke both the belief that Socialism could triumph without long preparation, and the hope that any form of economic organization was possible save that which was implicit in the facts of the time. It insisted upon no natural rights. It did not lay down any metaphysic. Term! It was, on the contrary, a careful and critical historic survey of the comparison institutional process regarded as a whole. To insist upon its epoch-mating character is not to regard it as an original or definitive document or to suggest that it is free from inconsistencies. It owes much, clearly, to Considerant's Manifeste de la Democratie which was published four years before. (2) There have been Utopian socialisms in despite of Marx; and quran, we are doubtless not at the end of them. The belief in natural rights revives with every age of discontent, and it would be possible to prove that the idea of natural rights is necessarily implicit in the juridical structure of Socialism. Comparison! Nor is its treatment of the middle class at all adequate. At one point it is subject to a vituperation so scathing and relentless, as to make it seem the nurse of evaluation essay all social evil. At another its great historic achievements are exalted beyond all praise.
Its immediate programme of action is borrowed in almost every particular from those earlier Socialists who are so unsparingly condemned. Nor can Marx's claim that he substituted a critical insight into the facts, progress and general results of the actual social movement for the systems of comparison contrast his predecessors, be entirely accepted; for, after all, it is not the least merit of Fourier and Saint-Simon that they had described with not less sober accuracy than that of Marx the economic conditions of their time. Even the use of the class-war as the key to history was brilliantly in the Genevan Letters of Saint-Simon. Yet the general superiority of the Manifesto to previous Socialist writing is incontestable. It contains, broadly speaking, four definite groups of ideas. Beginning with a history of the growth of the middle class it recounts its victory over feudal privilege, its emergence into the full development of capitalistic enterprise, and its necessary result in a revolutionary proletariat. A second section deals with the philosophic interpretation of this history.
It argues that the doctrine of the class struggle, the acceptance essay necessary and inevitable conflict between the comparison bourgeoisie and the proletariat, with the consequent revolutionary role that is assigned to the latter, are the plain deductions to be drawn. Ways and means are then discussed, the main object of which is to bring within the ambit of six sigma paper state control the whole economic life of the people. There then follows a criticism of previous Socialist literature of which it must be said that, forcible and comparison contrast, eloquent as it is, much of it is inaccurate and the whole unfair. The Book! No description can do justice to the brilliant vigour of the whole. Every phrase of it is a challenge, and much of comparison contrast it has the same moving passion that distinguishes the exordium of the Social Contract or, in a very different type of polemic, the Paroles d'un Croyant of Lamennais. It is the book of men who have viewed the whole process of history from an writing colleges in florida, eminence and discovered therein an inescapable lesson. It is at once an epilogue and a prophecy--an epilogue to the deception from comparison essay which the workers suffered in the Revolution of 1789 and a prophecy of the land of promise they may still hope to enter. A movement that could produce a challenge so profound came hardly less to fulfil than to destroy. It had hardly appeared before the Revolution broke out in Paris, and Marx, as a precautionary measure, was banished from Brussels by the Belgian Government. Tyranny has banished you, wrote the French Provisional Government, but a free France opens her gates to you. Marx proceeded to Paris, but remained there only acceptance a short time.
Germany was already seething with revolt, and the natural vantage-ground for him was obviously the Rhineland. Gathering about' trim the members of the Communist League Marx went to essay, Cologne where the editorship of the revolutionary paper, the Neue Rheinische Zeitung , was entrusted to him. Brief as was its life, its substance was not merely brilliant but of great significance as an indication of the Marxian tactic. Engels and Wilhelm Wolff were its chief contributors, and Freiligrath and Lassalle sent poems and essays. Mehring has published a selection of the chief articles of Marx in this paper. Dominantly, they insist upon three ideas: the disarming of the bourgeoisie, the erection of thesis flowers a revolutionary terror to abridge and concentrate the hideous death agonies of society, and the creation of comparison contrast a revolutionary army.
There is no room in Marx's thought, save perhaps as an essay, ultimate, for any democratic system. Revolution opposes counter-revolution, and a reign of terror is the path to triumph. Liberty is dismissed as a purely bourgeois ideal, which impedes proletarian advance to its goal. The idea of a general upheaval, Russia linking hands with France, Berlin uniting with Vienna, is emphasized, though it should be added that Marx had no full realization either of the difficulties the Revolution would encounter, or the essay contrast speediness of its destruction. The paper hardly lived for a year, when troubles with the censorship put an end to essay help, its existence, Marx left Cologne and returned to Paris, but only to witness the bloody suppression of the days of June. Banished by the French Government in July, 1849, to a remote corner of Brittany, he decided to move to London. Thither he went with his family, and he remained in England, with one or two brief intervals, for the rest of comparison essay contrast his life. Marx's London period is, creatively, the most important part of his career; but it was a difficult and tragic struggle for existence, and flowers for algernon, his work was accomplished only by heroic effort. Essay! For the first ten years, the family was hardly over the verge of starvation, and anthem essay, Marx had even to pawn his clothes for necessary expenses. For was his intellectual environment easy.
The disappointed makers of a revolution are never comfortable neighbours; and his pamphlet, Herr Vogt (1860) is proof that German Communists did not differ from their fellows of France or Russia. ten years (1851-60) Marx acted as European correspondent of the New York Tribune , a post which was the sole source of any continuous income. It was, however, very poorly paid, and if the selection of his articles therein published by Eleanor Marx after his death is at all representative, it is clear that the contrast taste of the anthem help American reader has changed in essay contrast remarkable fashion since the 'sixties. For Marx does not abate one iota of his convictions in his correspondence; and the manner of interpretation is that of the philosopher rather than the journalist. That income apart, Marx had no consistent means of the book i like most quran essay livelihood during his first ten vears in London. Then came one or two family legacies, and essay contrast, a generous tribute from Wilhelm Wolff; later, Engels was able from his own means to allow Marx some three hundred and essay, fifty pounds a year.
Yet, with all their penury, these were not unhappy years. His wife seems to have had a real genius for deriving contentment from misfortune; judges like Heine and Paul Lafargue paid her the tribute of profound admiration. His children were growing up, and Marx was passionately fond of his children. Their nurse, Helene Demuth, was a source of infinite help and comfort, and there was always the sure knowledge of the inevitable triumph of the revolutionary cause. For Marx did not share in the sense of depression which fell upon Liberals after the failure of 1848. He shut himself in the British Museum and, sometimes working sixteen hours a day, set himself to the composition of a socialist economics. One or two minor pamphlets were written, as the unsparing denunciation of the coup d'etat of comparison contrast 1851, which he called the Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte (1852) and the Critique of Political Economy (1859) which is important in six sigma term paper part because it is the comparison groundwork of the Capital itself and in part because of the valuable light it throws upon his own conception of his method. But outside his relations with the international, it was to the Capital that these years were devoted.
And they were years of unremitting and devoted service. He was at the Museum as it opened and never left until the thesis flowers for algernon attendants turned him out. Contrast! A chosen band of helpers, all fellow-exiles, used to accompany him and aid in the researches he conducted; though it should perhaps be added that they were not admitted as assistants until they had shown their agreement with Marx and creative in florida, passed certain craniological tests. Phrenology was not typical merely of the comparison essay contrast Utopian period of Socialism. Marx, moreover, never considered the exchange of conviction for comfort; offers of position came to him, as when Buchar sounded him, possibly on Bismarck's behalf; but he never dreamed of desertion. Anthem Essay! There is certainly no more remarkable instance of essay contrast great sacrifice for intellectual discovery than that of which Marx's life is a record. Darwin, it is the book quran essay, true, devoted twenty years to the testing of his hypotheses, but he had ample means at his command. Marx was surrounded by difficulties, of which not the least was the essay knowledge that his self-imposed task condemned his wife and family to profound suffering. Neither he nor they seemed to have flinched from the consequences, and one may judge not unfairly that their pride in his work was for Marx his happiest achievement. Of Marx's intellectual environment in London, we know all too little.
Men like John Stuart Mill he never met, though he was on friendly terms with the leading trade unionists as Odger and Applegarth. With the research latter, however, he had no intimate political relations, and in the contemporary history of English labour, his name has no large place. That, perhaps, was natural enough; for English trade unionism was then a system of essay contrast compromises with which Marx's revolutionary dogmas had little connection. For the most part his affiliations were with Engels and essay, the German exiles in London, though only the former seems to have enjoyed his full confidence. He had, moreover, a close relation-ship with that mysterious figure, half-fanatic and half-knight-errant, David Urquhart, whose loathing of Russia Marx seems fully to have shared. Both of them saw spies at every street corner, and at one time or another, in each case without a shadow of justification, Marx was able to convince himself that Herwegh and Bakunin were government emissaries.
It is, of course, sufficiently intelligible that an comparison essay contrast, exile who had himself been the object of police attentions should live in an atmosphere of nervous suspicion; but it is a regrettable corollary of Marx's accusations that both Herwegh and Bakunin belonged to different sections of the Socialist party. Essay! Marx never welcomed opposition or rivalry; and he Noms too prone to assume that a doubt of his rightness was a doubt also of comparison contrast his opponent's integrity. Creative Colleges! Yet it must be counted to his great credit in these years that he is in no small degree responsible for the .svmpathy shown to the North by the working class during the American Civil War. It was Marx who advised the union of the labour leaders with Cobden and Bright to arouse the enthusiasm of the trade unions; and it was Marx who proposed in the General Council of the International, that a vote of congratulation be sent to Lincoln, on essay his re-election as President of the United States. Marx played some part also in arousing the trade unions to protest against the brutal suppression by Russia of the Polish revolt of most quran essay 1863. But, apart from the preparation of Capital , Marx's chief occupation in London was with the early stages of the First International. In 1862 a group of comparison contrast Paris workmen paid a visit to the London Exhibition of that year. A trade union committee received them and a joint international Council was founded.
When the term paper Polish rebellion of 1863 broke out, it was this Council which prepared the gigantic protest meetings against Russian barbarity which represented the first intervention, failure though it was, of British labour in foreign politics. It was in connection with this campaign that Odger, a member of the Junta, suggested that the needs of the working class involved the holding of regular international meetings. The idea was taken up with enthusiasm and a great meeting was held in London in comparison September, 1864, to organize the movement. Marx, who had held rather aloof from the acceptance college essay initial stages was present at the meeting, and joined the Founders' Committee that was created. Contrast! He perceived at once the flowers significance of the new movement, and though he seems to have had little but contempt for its leaders, he was appointed to draw up the inaugural address. The Committee had given him a basis prepared by the French delegates and accepted by it as adequate. Marx, characteristically enough, destroyed the contrast basis, and produced instead an address of his own detailing the writing colleges progress of the working class in England during the past thirty years, and insisting that its meaning must be read in terms only of his own theories. It is, in fact, a new edition of the Communist Manifesto , with the revolutionary period of trade unionism as the basis of its deductions instead of universal history.
The special interest of the essay contrast address, however, lies in six sigma paper Marx's use of the history of the Factory Acts as a proof of the essay contrast value of working-class agitation. In the bright sunlight of day, he said, the bourgeois political economy was here vanquished for the first time by the book i like quran essay the political economy of the working class. The Factory Acts were, indeed, revolutionary in the sense that they were a direct admission of the inadequacy of comparison laissez-faire; but their passage was hardly due to the type of influence Marx had in mind. At least in other moods he would not have called Lord Shaftesbury a revolutionary Communist. Marx henceforward devoted much energy to the International, and as he hurried it forth from its cradle, so he may be said to have hastened it towards the grave. Writing! Its origin began in dissension--the struggle between the idealist nationalism of Mazzini and the revolutionary and class-conscious aggressiveness of Marx. On the comparison latter's victory Mazzini withdrew, though with characteristic selflessness he advised his followers to continue their support. Marx henceforth dominated the college essay organization, though he waged a continuous warfare to maintain his supremacy.
To him, the movement was essentially an effort to propagate the ideas of the Communist Manifesto and thus to comparison, prepare the way for the revolution. But to the English members the International was essentially an organ for promoting trade unionism; and when Ogder perceived, in the Commune of 1871 and Marx's defence of it, the real drift of its purpose, he resigned from the organization. The English section always remained aloof from the directorate; for creative writing colleges in florida, it was that special brand of Radicalism of comparison essay which William Lovett was perhaps the acceptance finest representative that they were really concerned to foster. Nor was the English section the comparison only difficulty. For the first two years, the followers of Proudhon were not able rivals, and they had no sympathy with Marx's idea of a direct and immediate political revolution.
They were, moreover, hostile to anthem help, Communism; and racial differences played their part. Even when the Proudhonians had been defeated, Bakunin and his followers remained. They were anarchists and bitterly opposed to the centralized dictatorship of which Marx was the exponent; and there were grave differences between them on the degree to which property was to be confiscated. Bakunin, it must be admitted, was as difficult as Marx himself in colleagueship. He founded a rival organization and contrast, did much intriguing against Marx when he was readmitted on its abandonment. By 1872 his influence had so increased that a frontal attack upon him was impossible. In the Hague Congress of that year, Marx therefore proposed the removal of the headquarters to New York.
The motion was carried; but it was obviously impossible to direct European Socialism from a position three thousand miles away. By 1875 the six sigma term paper International was extinct; and hostile as were the attentions given to it by the Governments of Europe, it rather perished of internal dissension, tile struggle between two powerful and antithetic personalities, than from external attack. Not, however, before it had rendered one great service. The Second Empire perished in the defeat of Sedan, and the provisional government created by Thiers was not merely hostile to a democratic re-organization, but even looked forward to the building of a new monarchy. Comparison Essay Contrast! The working men of Paris had no sympathy with these ideas; and the Commune was their answer to evaluation research article essay, them. The effort lasted only seven weeks, when it was overthrown amid scenes of unexampled butchery. Marx had been definitely hostile to comparison essay contrast, its inception. For him tile essential function of the workers was to strengthen their own organizations and to prepare themselves thereby for their coming freedom. But when the Communards perished in their heroic folly, and were pursued, as even more modern history has pursued them, by quran essay a campaign of comparison essay virulent and help, lying attack, Marx came to their defence in what is, the Communist Manifesto apart, the most brilliant pamphlet he ever wrote. The Civil War in France , published as an comparison, official statement of the International, is, of course, a partial and incomplete view of the complicated events it narrates; but nothing that has been written since so admirably depicts the ideas and sentiments by which the Communards were inspired, or more energetically displays the savage brutality with which they were treated.
The defence was the more generous when Marx's low opinion of the French Socialist movement is remembered, as also his conviction that Sedan was the just price of Bonapartist imperialism. Yet even in the hour of the book i like quran essay a victory he welcomed, Marx addressed the German workers in a manifesto which demanded a fair and honourable place for the vanquished. Meanwhile, the great labour of his life had been partially completed by the publication, in comparison 1867, of the first volume of the Capital . It cannot be said to have received the welcome it deserved. Written, of course, as it was in acceptance college essay a German particularly cumbrous and involved in structure, it was necessarily caviare to the multitude. The Saturday Review perceived the value of the material of which it made use; though not even Professor Beesly's persuasiveness could induce George Henry Lewes to insert a long notice from essay Engels in anthem help the Fortnightly . Russian and French translations soon followed; and in Russia, particularly, the book soon made its way to that position of contrast commanding influence it has never lost. Marx, it must be remembered, was already well-known in critical evaluation research Russia. Comparison Contrast! Belinsky had already praised the Franco-German Year Books ; Annenkov had published a long critique from Marx on Proudhon; and his relations with Herzen and six sigma, Bakunin had made him a notable figure among international Socialists. In Germany the book seems to have made its way but slowly; and the second edition (1873) contains a long protest by Marx against comparison essay what he deemed an organized conspiracy of silence.
It had, of thesis course, presently to undergo the inevitable attack incidental to all learned German controversy--on the ground that its doctrines had been anticipated; and Marx was ludicrously assumed to have stolen his thunder from Rodbertus. But within five years from its publication Capital had become the pivotal part of German Socialist literature, and comparison essay contrast, his name assumed the position from which ail other socialists might be surveyed. Marx, was not, however, destined to complete it. The long struggle against poverty had left its mark upon his frame, and the last twelve years of his life were an incessant fight against pain and disease. Asthma and inflammation of the lungs left him little chance of continuous world, though typically- enough, he devoted his rest to the study of the Russian language that he might speak the term paper more authoritatively, upon comparison essay its agriculture, and to such recreations as physiology and acceptance college essay, advanced mathematics. He wrote, too, in 1875, his Criticisms of the Gotha Programme , which contains, perhaps, the essay contrast clearest statement of his attitude towards the transition to Socialism. He was able, further, in acceptance 1877-8, to do something towards preparing the second volume of comparison contrast Capital for the press. But visits to Karlsbad and Algiers did not improve his shattered health; and paper, he did not lift his head again after the death of his wife on December 2nd, 1881. To her, Marx had intended, as Engels has told us, to dedicate the completed structure of his work. He had no strength for the effort. On March 14th, 1883, he died peacefully, after a slight hemorrhage of the lungs.
His old nurse, Helene, and comparison, Engels were present at his death; and three days later he was laid to rest in the cemetery at Highgate. Engels and Wilhelm Liebknecht spoke at anthem help his graveside; and the former devoted the remaining twelve years of his life to completing the unfinished edifice of his master. Marx would have wished no other wreath upon his tomb. Marx's personality is no easy one to dissect. There is no trace of the rebel in his inheritance; and comparison contrast, his early education would have fitted him for any career rather than the one he chose. Evaluation Article! If he became the head and centre of the essay contrast destructive forces of Europe, that was the acceptance college essay inevitable outcome of the reactionary regime into which he was born; and he would doubtless have countered that description by comparison contrast insisting that destruction is the parent of creativeness. I Like Quran Essay! His work dealt with the historic foundations of the permanent source of essay contrast revolution, and the only weapon, as we realized, for flesh that has mortified is the knife. The view that makes of him the anthem essay compeer of Darwin, the discoverer of the universal law of economic evolution, has not a little truth in it; but it is less true than that which places him alongside of Rousseau and Carlisle, as one of the great prophets of the human race. For it is essentially by the qualities of the prophet that he is distinguished. Essay! He was unmoved by oracles other than his own. Impatient of difference; as with Proudhon and six sigma, Bakunin, contemptuous, as his correspondence with Engels shows, of all who did not think exactly in his fashion, he never learned the essential art of comparison essay colleagueship.
He was too prone to regard a hostile view as proof of moral crime. He had not a little of six sigma term that zest for priority he was so unwilling to contrast, recognize in the discoveries of others. He was rarely generous in his recognition of intellectual stimulus. With Marx, to enter a movement was to i like quran essay, dominate it; and comparison contrast, he was incapable of talking the acceptance second place. Hatred, wrote Mazzini of comparison contrast him, outweighs love in his heart, which is not right even if the hatred may in itself have foundation. Flowers! There is a penetrating truth in that criticism. Marx's absorption in the wrongs of the disinherited undoubtedly blinded him to tile universality of human nature. He had brooded so long over the method of their redress, that he became incapable of weighing the essay value of thesis flowers for algernon alternative channels. Comparison! He never realized how partial and incomplete were the views upon which he based his conclusions; and vast and creative, patient as were the researches he undertook, he was not always exact in his measurement of evidence. He is, in fact, a noble, but not an attractive figure.
That there was a Marx eminently lovable in comparison contrast himself, the testimony of friends makes certain; but it was not the Marx of public life. There is something unhealthy; in the venom with which he assails early friends like Bruno Bauer, or not less ardent seekers after light like Proudhon. His accusations against Proudhon even when the temptation to writing colleges in florida, destroy is remembered were singularly ungenerous. Learned, courageous, capable of profound sympathy with the mass of men, he was never able to grasp the secret of dealing with individuals. Much, is to be pardoned to comparison essay, an exile who never enjoyed comfort, and had often risked his personal safety but Mazzini was able to emerge from trials not less difficult with a sweetness unembittered. Nor could Marx accustom himself to the necessary compromises of political life. One is tempted to feel that Marx confined his introspection to other men, and never attempted that sober examination of self which is often the beginning of political wisdom. That effort, after all, is fundamental. The unstated assumptions of a thinker's personality are the more urgent because they do not appear in the printed word.
Every great philosophic interpretation is at bottom a spiritual autobiography, and Marx never realized how greatly his work is a palimpsest within which one can read the history of his personal experience. It is significant for his books that his early radicalism should have proved a barrier to his university career. It is significant also that he should have known the pains and penalties of exile. Nor is creative writing colleges in florida, it irrelevant that, after thirty years in London, he was still, at the end, a German stranger testing facts and essay, constructing theories in terms quite alien from the acceptance circumstances around him. Comparison Essay! The impalpable penumbra of his thought never impressed him, even while it remained the subconscious touchstone by which he judged the thought and acts of other men. Thus, while he wrote with superb profundity about the material environment of men's lives, he rarely penetrated into the inner substance of those lives. With such tracts of experience--religion for example--as were alien from his own knowledge he could neither sympathize, nor understand. He wrote a philosophy which expresses in the book quran essay the mass the aspirations of men; but it is not a philosophy, like that of Rousseau which, with all its defects, springs directly from their deepest emotions. In a sense, that is to say, the essay contrast seeming logic of his attitude is deceptive, for it in part rests upon a failure to test his own assumptions, and in part upon an abstract vied of human nature with which the critical evaluation article essay totality of facts is in direct contradiction.
Marx's doctrines may be divided into five different parts which, though they are brought into connection in his writings, have in reality no necessary dependence upon each other. Their central economic position is a theory of value, by comparison essay which he endeavoured to explain the methods by which the workers are exploited under capitalism; and as a corollary, a view of the increasing concentration of capital from creative colleges which he derived important consequences in his prophecy of the future. Comparison Essay! Historically it is an attempt to explain the growth of movements and quran essay, institutions entirely in economic terms. Predominantly, Marx insists, the antagonism of comparison essay classes is the motive-power which underlies the historic process; and it is to the impulses which are at work in the satisfaction of economic demand that all changes are to be traced. Philosophically, this view results in a purely materialistic view of human nature--a view, be it noted, which has obvious and important connections with the general attitude of the Benthamite school. Politically, the doctrines of Marx resolve themselves into a defcnce of revolution as the method by college essay which the workers are to attain to power, and dictatorship as the method by comparison essay which they so consolidate it as ultimately to secure a condition of general freedom. Upon Marx's theory of value it is not necessary to spend much time. It has not stood the test of criticism; it is essay, out of harmony with the facts, and it is far from comparison essay self-consistent. Flowers For Algernon! It represents essentially a narrow interpretation of contrast some loose sentences of Ricardo.
The latter had argued, with certain qualifications, that the value of any commodity is to be measured by the quantity of labour which goes to its production. I Like Most Quran Essay! Marx, however, ignored the qualifications, and the proof he offered of the thesis is essentially different from that of Ricardo. Comparison! Exchange value, he argued, is not the singular quality of the commodity in which it inheres. Six Sigma Paper! Exchange value is the quality which it possesses alike with all other qualities for which it can be exchanged. Since human labour is the only quality which all commodities possess in common, human labour must be the measure of exchange value. Comparison Essay Contrast! And, be it noted, by colleges human labour is meant undifferentiated human labour, it is a quantitative and not a qualitative equation. It is a measure simply of effort in contrast time and not of flowers effort in comparison essay result or quality of result.
Labour is paid differently simply in relation to the different amount of labour congealed in any given commodity produced. That which will suffice to produce the necessaries of life for the labourer is therefore the price of the book i like quran labour power. engages, as it clearly follows, are the value of the workers necessaries of life. But the worker produces in a day more than suffices for his necessaries of life. If we assume that by working six hours each day the worker can produce his necessaries, while his working day is eight hours long, then the value of what he produces is essay contrast, as eight hours is to six, is, that is to say, one-third greater. Marx termed this extra-production surplus-value, and he assumed that the capitalist, taking his surplus as his profit, robbed the worker of it. For by buying labour-power at its market price! the capitalist at once grows rich and exploits his workers. Evaluation Research Article! And in any capitalistic society, especially where there is free competition, this is bound to be the case; from comparison essay which it of critical research essay course follows that only by the abolition of comparison capitalism can we stop the acceptance essay exploitation of labour. It is unnecessary to dwell at any length upon the fallacies implicit in this analysis. As a matter of logic, Marx had no right to assume that the quality of labour is, other differences being subtracted, the common basis of comparison measurement.
Nor did he mention that in addition to labour, all commodities to have value must have this at least in thesis flowers common, that they satisfy some need. Utility, in other words, is a necessary factor in value; it would be impossible to produce aeroplanes except upon the assumption that some people wanted to comparison contrast, fly in them. Nor can undifferentiated human labour be taken as a measure of value. It is an economic platitude that differences in wages are not merely due to critical evaluation research essay, differences in contrast the effort in time of production. It costs no less to produce a bad carpenter than a good one, but the quality of a good carpenter's world has a value quite apart from cost as effort; it has the type of value which the economists call a quasi-rent, and thesis flowers, this quasi-rent appears in the value-in-exchange of the product. Nor is this all. Wherever there is a type of production the phenomena of which result in rent, the comparison essay contrast measurement of value is not the mean cost of production but the marginal cost of production. Marx failed to note this limitation, with the re tilt that he cannot under stand the nature of rent and was led into obvious contradictions. (3) And he fails also to take any account of the critical evaluation research article essay fluctuating character of comparison contrast demand. He seems to have regarded demand as purely static, and falls, as a consequence, into all the difficulties which Bohm-Bawerk and essay, the Austrian school have emphasized. To say, moreover, with Marx that the cost of a labourer is the socially necessary cost, the comparison essay lowest cost, that is, at which he can be produced, is immediately to bring within purview tests of term paper his hypothesis which he entirely failed to contrast, apply.
For if wages represent the cost of necessaries, the existence of a proletariat whose wages are above the bare cost of necessaries clearly invalidates the whole process. hand, in fact, the question of creative in florida a wages level is an comparison essay contrast, historical problem in which logical considerations do not play the whole part. Social conscience, for example, as with the Trade Boards, may insist upon a rate of wages historically above the socially necessary cost, and trade unions may by the combined strength they represent, lead to i like quran essay, the same result. If a state, even though it be a capitalistic state, chose to adopt a policy of a minimum basis of civilized life, in which a wage-standard was fixed, the iron law of wages, which Marx deduced from his theory of value, would immediately be obsolete. It must not be forgotten, moreover, that in comparison essay the Marxian analysis whatever does not appear as wages, is always regarded as unearned profit. Of rent and interest this is, perhaps, no unfair account, but it is outside the evidence of facts to argue that the task of directing business, the work of the entrepreneur, is not to count as labour and essay, does not create value. Even when a suspicion of this impossibility dawned upon Marx, he dismissed the earnings of direction simply as cunning, (4) and argued that all profits contain an element of surplus value which differs from interest, wages and comparison essay, payment to the entrepreneur. But if profits are not a payment for work then it should surely follow that the capitalist must take it also; otherwise he is gifted with a quality of moderation with which Marx does not normally endow him. In such a general background, the Marxian theory of anthem essay help value seems clearly untenable not less on theoretic grounds than from an analysis of the facts of business. et it is equally undeniable that Marx's view has obtained the assent of a whole class of society to essay, its truth; and it is, therefore, worth while for a moment to inquire exactly what magic it possesses from which its strengthening hold is derived. The Book Most! That, it may be suggested, is simple enough.
Fr the technical economist, the essay difference between profits and rent Noms fundamental. Thesis For Algernon! Men like Ricardo and Nassau Senior saw a natural distinction in source of origin which manufacturers like Bright embodied in comparison the legitimate earnings of a hardworking mill-owner, whatever his wealth, and the illegitimate because unearned income of term a land-owning duke. They saw it the more clearly when, as in the period of Marx's own maturity, they were struggling to free his business from the environment of a hostile squirearchy. But to the labourer, as Marx clearly saw, such a distinction Noms for contrast, practical purposes irrelevant. The world was divided for him into those who lived by wages and acceptance college, those who did not. Those who lived by wages were poor, those who did not live by wages were rich. Assume, as Marx assumed, that the surplus theory of value is comparison essay, true, and the riches of those who do not live by critical evaluation research article essay wages are due to the poverty of those who do.
The worker was able to see that he was poor; he saw also that he produced more than he could consume, and that his surplus production was divided among a relatively small class of rich, and often idle, men. A theory such as Marx's inevitably appealed to comparison, him as the natural explanation of his oppressed condition. Thesis Flowers For Algernon! He clung to it, not by virtue of any logical estimation of its theoretic adequacy, but because it summarized the most poignant experience he knew. The Marxian law of wages, moreover, will, from its very nature, win new adherents at every period of commercial depression. At any moment when there is a decline in the effective demand for commodities, or when the strength of trade union resistance is at a low ebb, the impact of capitalism upon the wage-earner will closely resemble what Marx insisted is its normal relation; for few business men have imagination enough to realize that there are other ways to the rehabilitation of comparison contrast markets than the reduction of price by means of lower wages. Inevitably, therefore, the creative worker will move from the comparison contrast acceptance of surplus value to the philosophy which Marx constructed as its natural environment. The law of the concentration of capital stands upon firmer ground. The greater the degree of complexity involved in the productive process, argues Marx, the fewer will be the number of persons controlling its instruments. Everything contributes to the intensification of this process.
New means of communication are established, the problems of research article essay which are beyond the essay contrast solution of the small capitalist. Important mechanical inventions are beyond his financial means. Territorial consolidation destroys the local market in which he was once a privileged person. Acceptance College! The process, indeed, is neither immediate nor direct. It took the bourgeoisie three centuries to expropriate the artisan and comparison essay, create the proletariat.
But once the process had begun, the development was inexorable. Paper! Over production created a new army of reserve workers. Essay! The substitution of pasture for college essay, arable farming concentrated a large rural population in the towns. The economies of large scale production forced hitherto independent producers into the ranks of the wage-earners. The capitalistic system moves from a national to an international character; its market becomes the world. Its nature involves increasing centralization, until the control of the forces of production reaches a point where its further development in private hands is impossible.
For alongside the development of accumulation is the increase of the proletariat. The workers cannot any longer endure the misery that is involved in the capitalist regime. Comparison Essay! They have learned discipline from the training that is help, necessitated by the mechanism of the contrast process of which they are the victims. Thesis! The knell of capitalist private property then sounds. The expropriators are expropriated. To the great capitalist there succeeds them state, which is captured by the workers for their own purpose. The result of capitalism is, in fact, its own destruction. It produces, in Hegelian fashion, its own antithesis.
The very condition of its growth is that it should involve the laws which imply its inevitable ruin. We need not accept the conclusion of the argument to insist on the important truth that it contains. The wastage of competition in essay large scale enterprise is a commonplace of modern business, and the trust or cartel is the characteristic symptom of industrial development. There are, indeed, certain important limitations to the simplicity of the Marxian view. Six Sigma! The growth of joint stock enterprise distributes over a wider circle the number of those interested in the receipt of profits, even while it limits those who actually control the industrial process itself; while there are many minor industries, of which photography and the repair of motor-cars are examples, in which the tendency is to the increase of small firms rather than to the development of great ones.
But parallel with this evolution has gone a very striking centralization of credit which concentrates in continuously fewer hands the essay finances of the community. Agriculture, indeed, despite the large-scale farming of essay Western America, and the development of agrarian co-operation, remains persistently individualist in temper. Essay Contrast! (5) Yet, on the balance of inquiry it is flowers, impossible to essay, deny the emergence of an increasingly collectivist spirit. And its reaction upon acceptance essay industry is the more important because it leads, without question to the demand by the workers of certain nominal standards from the state which are increasingly insisted upon as the condition of business enterprise. Nor is that all. Comparison Essay Contrast! It becomes obvious that certain industries are, from their very nature, too vital in their results to be left to the chaotic possibilities of private effort. If the expropriators are not actually expropriated, there comes, as with mines and railways, a demand for some form of nationalization, and just as the investigations of the 'thirties and 'forties produced the Factory Acts, so it is legitimate to argue that the results of inquiries like the Coal Commission of 1919, and the Dockers' Inquiry of 1920, are likely to put a term to the continuance of private enterprise.
Capitalism, in term fact, prepares monopolies which immediately affect the community towards some form of state administration. So regarded, of course, this view does not involve the theory of revolution which Marx regarded as the inevitable corollary of capitalistic concentration. It need not, indeed, involve a transition towards a socialistic state at all. All that would seem to be implied would be the removal of essay industries essential to the welfare of the creative colleges community from the danger of exploitation by private interests. The logic of essay a necessary conflict resultant upon the concentration of capital is derived by Marx from other sources. It is the corollary of his interpretation of history. That, broadly speaking, may be summarized by saying that all the phenomena of history are the flowers for algernon result of economic motives. To them are traceable legal and social institutions not less than the essay religion and philosophy of each age. The system of six sigma term paper production is the ultimate factor, in short, by which the mass of human relationships is essay, determined.
Protestantism, Engels wrote, is essentially a bourgeois religion; so too, in a feudal period vie should expect the legislation to writing colleges in florida, reflect not general ideas of right, but those ideas of right which are compatible with the maintenance of feudalism. But ideas change, and in Marx's view, the source of change is to, be discovered in the transformation of one economic system into another. A new external world produces new internal ideas. Let women enter industry in the mass and, as Mr. Bertrand Russell has pointed out, ideas which not even the logic of Plato and Stuart Mill could make obvious, become accepted without question. Two hundred years ago, it was unthinkable that a peer should go into the city; to-day, finance has enmeshed political life within its fold, so that no company prospectus is complete until the peerage is represented there.
No one can doubt the very large measure of truth in this outlook. Comparison! No one can write the history of English Puritanism, of the struggle for toleration, or of the American Revolution, without making the defence of an economic incentive fundamental to six sigma term, their explanation. But it is equally clear that the insistence upon essay contrast an economic background as the whole exclamation is radically false. No economic motive can explain the suicidal nationalism of the Balkans. The war of 1914 may have been largely due to conflicting commercial imperialisms; but there was also a competition of writing in florida national ideas which was at no point economic. Historically. too, the part played by religion in the determination of social outlook was, until at least the peace of Westphalia, as important as that played by material conditions. Luther represents something more than a protest against the financial exactions of Rome. The impulses of men, in fact, are never referable to any single source., The love of power, herd-instinct, rivalry, the desire of display, all these are hardly less vital than the acquisitiveness which explains the strength of essay material environment. Engels, indeed, seems to have realized the narrowness of the article essay orthodox view, for in the later years of his life he insisted that the dominant part ascribed by Marx to comparison essay contrast, the economic motive was due mainly to its neglect by his opponents, and there was not always time, place and opportunity to do justice to the other considerations.
But with Marx the economic motive is not only anthem final, it is final in a particular way. The only durable source of faction, said Madison, is property, and, for Marx, the emergence of comparison contrast private property in history is the beginning of the class struggle. Immediately society can be divided into those who do, and those who do not, possess private property, a power is released which explains the changes of history. Acceptance College Essay! For the class which possesses property moulds the civilization of that society in the service of its own interests. It controls the government, it makes the laws, it builds the social institutions of the commonwealth in accordance with its own desires. Slave and free man, master and servant, these have been the eternal antitheses of essay contrast history. With the advent of creative writing capitalism the struggle is at comparison essay contrast once simplified, and made more intense. Thenceforward, the final stage of the class-war, the struggle between bourgeoisie and proletariat, emerges. And just as each social order of the past has secreted within its womb the germ of critical article essay its successor, as for example, feudalism produced capitalism, so does the latter contain within itself the germ of its communist successor. Contrast! Capitalism, said Marx, produces its own gravedigger.
The conflict, in his view, was an inevitable and a bitter one, and it was bound to result in the victory of the proletariat. The bourgeoisie, he wrote in the Communist Manifesto , is thesis for algernon, incapable of continuing in power because it is incapable of securing a bare subsistence to its slaves; and the result is a growing sense of revolt in the worker who ultimately, by a revolutionary act, assumes the reins of power. In a large sense, it is obvious that the substance of comparison essay contrast this interpretation is accurate. The fact of the six sigma paper class struggle, as Marx himself pointed out, is a commonplace of contrast historians and economists; and it may be added that to critical evaluation article essay, deny its importance is to make history unintelligible. Where diary parted company with his predecessors Noms in the deductions he drew from his perception of its significance.
For whereas with men like Madison and Guizot, the fact of conflict produced a sense of horror at its implications, and a search for a technique that its dangers might be obviated, with Marx the conflict was fundamental and both its method and ultimate outcome were to him alike obvious. Whereas with Madison there is an ever present uncertainty whether a just victory may not suffer betrayal, or a wrong object be pursued, with Marx the process is predetermined and, save for a brief period in 1870, no hesitation seems to have crossed his mind. The method by which the proletariat was to contrast, secure power lies at the very root of Marx's doctrine; and it has been in our own day, perhaps, the main source of his influence. The method was revolution, and a dictatorship of acceptance college essay iron rigour would consolidate the new system until the period of comparison essay contrast transition had been effectively bridged. Marx did not blind himself to what all this implied. The history of capitalism was the college history of a relentless defence of each phase of the rights of property. They were maintained by methods at each point unconnected with ethical demands. If the conflict was extreme as in the days of June, 1848, or with the Commune of Paris, the last ounce of misery was wrung from its opponents, that capitalism might be secure. A period of comparative quiescence may produce the concession of social reform, but this is comparison essay contrast, merely deception. Once a really vital point is touched by the workers' demands, they are met by armed resistance.
That means, of evaluation research essay course, that only by conscious violent intervention can communism be realized. Comparison Essay! The proletariat must seize a propitious moment for term paper, the revolution; but until it comes, they must do all in their power to disturb the existing regime. Even if minor successes have beer achieved by the aid of the liberal-minded bourgeoisie from the first hour of victory, the workers must level their distrust against their former allies. They must create a working-class organization of their own workers' committees, local workers' councils, to oppose proletarian institutions and their influence to those of the middle-class state. The Communists must arm the proletariat and do all they can to cut down the army of the State as the chief weapon of defence possessed by comparison the bourgeoisie. Where the workers are in the militia, they must form within it a secret organization to obtain its control. They must form their own independent, if hidden, military force and acquire arms by every method. Influential democrats to whose word the working class seems to respond, must be discredited. The old social order, in college fact, must be attacked at every point.
Communists have two functions only, to prepare for the revolution, and to comparison essay contrast, consolidate it successfully when it has been prepared. They must think of themselves not as realizing an ideal, but only as setting free the elements of a new society concealed within the womb of the old. The period of consolidation, moreover, must be a period of iron dictatorship. Marx had no illusions about the possibility of essay a democratic governance in such an hour. The ideals of freedom were impossible to maintain until the ground so conquered had been made secure. Revolution provokes counter-revolution; and a victorious proletariat must be on its guard against reaction. Revolution, in comparison essay fact, demands of the revolutionary class that it secure its purpose by six sigma term paper every method at comparison essay its disposal. It has neither time nor opportunity for compassion or remorse. Its business is to terrorize its opponents into acquiescence.
It must disarm antagonism by execution, imprisonment, forced labour, control of the press. For as it cannot allow any effort at the violent overthrow of what it has established, so must it stamp out such criticism as might be the prelude to further attack. Revolution is war, and war is founded upon six sigma terror. The methods of capitalism must be used for the extinction of capitalism. For as capitalism has made of life itself the cheapest of essay commodities, there need be no repining at its sacrifice, and the result, in any case, is research essay, worth the cost, since it destroys the possibility of comparison essay contrast future sale. It would have been a wanton betrayal of trust, said Marx of the Paris Commune, to the book i like most quran, observe the traditional forms of liberalism. The end, in fact, is too great to be nice about the means employed. Nor can we expect that a peaceful revolution is possible. While Marx had certain doubts of England, on the whole he was certain that a violent struggle was inevitable.
The workers might capture Parliament at the polls; but political power of that kind is in any case a shadow, and were it used for an assault upon essay contrast property, it would inevitably provoke an armed resistance. Essay! Marx indeed, went further and was openly contemptuous of essay contrast democracy. Six Sigma Term! It was a bourgeois invention unrelated to the real, and used only to deceive the people. Again and again the proletariat is betrayed; and throughout Marx's writings there is the assumption that reliance must be placed upon a class-conscious minority. For in his view there is no place in history for the majority principle; the record of States is the clash between determined minorities, contending for the seat of power. To introduce considerations of consent, to wait on in the comparison essay contrast belief that the obvious rightness of communist doctrine will ultimately persuade men to its acceptance, is entirely to ignore reality.
The mass of men will always acquiesce in, or be indifferent to, whatever solutions are afforded. Communists must proceed upon the assumption that nothing matters save the enforcement of critical essay their will. Upon the end this revolution is to serve, the forms its purpose will adopt, Marx has written but little. Obviously, with justice on his side; for essay, speculation in distant historical futures is the worst form of gambling It was with the destruction of capitalism and the period of transition therefrom that he was mainly concerned. A new productive system was bound to term, involve new institutions which no man could foresee. Essay Contrast! That the Communist maxim, From each according to his powers, to each according to his wants, would become operative was, of course obvious to him; that performance would be measured in terms of labour-time (a possibly inconsistent hypothesis) he took for granted. But he was always emphatic that the future must settle itself. He insisted that the measure of distribution would be necessarily unequal in the period of transition. You may, as he saw, destroy by term paper catastrophe, but creation is not an immediate and spontaneous process. So that he nowhere set limits to the duration of this intermediate period. It was necessary to wait until the habits engendered bv a new productive system created a psychology in which the dogma of comparison essay equality superseded the bourgeois hypothesis of individual rights.
The main thing was the destruction of anthem a regime in comparison contrast which classdistinction made possible the term servitude of the many. It was possible to have confidence in an order in which the essay contrast whole force of social effort was deliberately placed at the disposal of the common welfare. A generation which has seen this doctrine supported by machine-guns and bayonets is unlikely to belittle its importance. Nor can it be denied that not a little of social evolution has taken the course Marx predicted. Anyone who reads the history of the industrial struggle in Colorado or West Virginia will find it difficult to discover a limit of unreason which capitalism is not willing consistently to overpass. The treatment of communists in Hungary and Finland has exactly the characteristics he foretold. Six Sigma Paper! An isolated community like the miners of South Wales becomes, naturally communist in the background of incompetence and ill-treatment from their employers.
And representative government, at least in its classical form, seems unlikely to essay, justify the high hopes of its Benthamite exponents. Every country in the world that has experimented with universal suffrage has experienced a sense of disillusion. It is thesis for algernon, even commonplace to argue that reason has little place in political struggle, and to pin faith to an irrational impulse which seeks no more than the satisfaction of individual desire. If there has been an improvement in comparison the general standard of civilization, an increasing unwillingness, for example, to inflict unnecessary pain, there are no signs of the mitigation of the colleges class-conflict. Comparison! On the contrary, the critical evaluation events of the last decade point directly to its exacerbation; and we have obviously entered upon a period in which the rights of contrast property are challenged at anthem help their foundation. Certainly it is unquestionable that the purchase-price of capitalist survival is the offer of concessions which a generation ago would have seemed not less unnecessary than unthinkable. Yet the approximation of the general atmosphere to the condition Marx had in view hardly justifies the principles upon which he placed his reliance. To begin with, the preparation for revolution is a qualitatively different problem from essay contrast what it was in the days of the Paris barricades. Anthem Essay! It is possible in a mood of defeat for a civilian population to destroy a regime which the army and navy no longer uphold, and, as was demonstrated long ago by Cromwell, a military force which is dissatisfied with its civilian superiors can without difficulty become their master. Comparison Contrast! But for a party of essay men in the position of communists in the modern State, the situation is very different. Unless they are the majority and, consequently, the government, the hostility of the army and navy is certain.
Nor can they obtain, on any large scale, the necessary equipment for insurrection. They would have to obtain control of the comparison national arsenals; and essay, that would mean the dispersion of forces in any case small by hypothesis. They would have to meet in the people at large at least a mood of acquiescence. They would have to contrast, guarantee a supply of food, which, in anthem any but a dominantly agricultural society, would be practically impossible if international credit was seriously impaired by essay contrast the revolution. Even if we regard a general strike as tantamount, in the conditions of modern industry, to a revolution the difficulties are overwhelming. A general strike might well succeed as a protest against war, for college, its penumbra might, in the future, arouse emotions of comparison contrast determination that would be irresistible. But upon any less dramatic issue, it seems tolerably certain that once again, the writing in florida army and navy must be in the control of the strikers if success is to essay, be assured. For a modern army can supply all services connected with transportation; it can secure the distribution of food, and the problem of fuel is becoming less and less a matter of mining coal. The Marxian view of a secretly armed minority assuming power at a single stroke is unthinkable in the modern state.
It would have to imply either the existence of anthem essay help a government so weak that it had practically ceased to be a government at all, or, what perhaps, an equivalent, a population actively sympathetic to the revolutionary minority. The resources of publicity in modern civilization make impossible the private preparation of the gigantic effort assumed by the Marxian hypothesis. But this is only the beginning of the difficulty. Marx assumed throughout his analysis a system of compact states the life of which was mainly determined by essay economic considerations, and each relatively independent of college its neighbours. Each of these assumptions is only partially true of the modern world.
A State like England, which is wholly dependent on foreign trade, could not undergo a successful revolution except upon comparison the assumption that her neighbours viewed its results with benevolence. Such an attitude on the part, for instance, of America is very unlikely, and the rupture of college Anglo-American Trade would be fatal to any revolution in this country. Comparison! For is acceptance essay, that all. It is quite clear that the division a revolution would imply must, in its workings, be very partially determined by economic considerations. In a country like America, for example, there would be at least three other factors of vital importance. Essay! An American communist revolution would have to cope with problems of distance which would probably render it abortive at a very early stage. It would not, as in France, be a matter of the creative writing in florida immense impact of the capital on the life of the nation; Washington is relatively insignificant in the perspective of America. To control the whole continent would involve controlling the most complicated railway system in the world. And even if that difficulty could be surmounted, a complex of nationalist differences would have to be assuaged.
German, French, English, Irish, Polish, these have their special characteristics which the American capitalist has been able to exploit to their common disadvantage; it is difficult to see how an appeal to a communist minority of each would result in the transcendence of these differences. Even then, the comparison contrast religious problem remains; and the hold of the churches upon the mind, particularly, of the Latin peoples would not be easy to loosen. For Marx, insisting only upon the economic motive, it is easy to ignore these difficulties, but it is far too narrow an outlook not to realize at the outset that appeal can be made to other incentives every whit as strong. And even if it were argued that Marx could in evaluation research article essay our own time assume that the day of such prejudice as nationality and religion engender is essay contrast, passing (which is doubtful), and that the barriers built by acceptance economic difference are now alone important, his conclusions would not follow. Comparison Contrast! For in a period of universal suffrage, it ought then to be possible to capture the seat of power at the polls, and throw upon the capitalist the onus of revolting against a socialist democracy. There are, however, other approaches to the problem which Marx did not adequately consider.
There is, in the first place, the general result upon society of the practice of violence, particularly when the term destructive nature of modern warfare is borne in mind; and, in the second, there is the special psychological result upon the agents of the opposing forces in such a regime. Contrast! Marx did not consider these possibilities, in part because he judged that, in any case, the six sigma conflict was inevitable, and also because he was convinced that whatever sacrifices had to be made would be ultimately justified by the result. Such an attitude is, of course, simply an instance of his general failure to weigh sufficiently the substance of a political psychology. In part, also, it is the corollary of comparison essay a determinism which the facts in term paper issue at no point justify. Essay! For it is obvious that if revolution, with its attendant violence, is justified for any cause in which you happen to believe profoundly, no modern state can hope for either security and order. The war has shown clearly that the impulses of savagery which are checked by peace are, when loosed, utterly destructive of the foundations of a decent existence. If life became an organized and continuous jacquerie, civilization could quite easily be reduced to the state where, as in Mr. The Book I Like Quran Essay! Wells's imaginary but far from impossible picture, some aged survivor may tell of an essay contrast, organized Europe as a legend which his grandchildren cannot hope to understand. Critical Evaluation Research! Violence, on the grand scale, in fact, so far from proving an avenue to communism, would be the one kind of existence in which the comparison impulses demanded by a communist state had no hope of emergence. For the condition of communism is the restraint of for algernon exactly those appetites which violence releases; and Marx has nowhere indicated how this difficulty could be met. Even beyond this issue, a further point must be raised.
Marx has assumed the seizure of power, and a period of rigorous control until the people are prepared for communism. But he has not shown what approximate length that period is to be, nor what certainty we have that those who act as controllers of the dictatorship will be willing to surrender their power at the proper time. Essay! It is a commonplace of history that power is poisonous to critical research article, those who exercise it; there is no reason to assume that the Marxian dictator will in essay contrast this respect be different from six sigma other men. And, ex hypothesi, it will be more difficult to defeat his malevolence since his regime will have excluded the possibility of opposition. No group of men who exercise the powers of a despot can ever retain the habit of democratic responsibility. That is obvious, for instance, in the case of men like Sir Henry Maine and Fitzjames Stephen, who, having learned in India the habit of autocratic government, become impatient on their return to England of the slow process of comparison essay persuasion which democracy implies. To sit continuously in the seat of office is inevitably to become separated from the mind and wants of those over whom you govern. For the governing class acquires an interest of its own, a desire for anthem essay help, permanence, a wish, perhaps, to retain the dignity and contrast, importance which belong to their function; and they will make an acceptance essay, effort to secure them.
That, after all, is only to insist that every system of government' breeds a system of habits; and to argue as a corollary, therefrom that the Marxian dictatorship would breed habits fatal to the emergence of the regime Marx had ultimately in view. Essay! The special vice of every historic system of six sigma term government has been its inevitable tendency to identify its own private good with the public welfare. To suggest that communists might do the comparison essay same is no more than to postulate their humanity. And it may be added that if they surrendered power at a reasonable time, the grounds for so doing, being obviously in their nature non-economic, would thereby vitiate the truth of the materialistic interpretation of history. All this, it is worth noting, is to omit from consideration the writing in florida ethical problems that are involved.
It is obvious, for example, that it involves the complete erosion of the whole historic process. But the erosion of responsibility in the governing class is the destruction of personality in their subjects. Comparison Contrast! In such a regime notions of flowers for algernon liberty and equality are out of place. Essay! Yet it is obvious that the two main defects of capitalism are its failure to produce liberty and equality for the mass of humble men and women. Marx, that is to say, contemplated a condition which reproduces exactly the chief vices of capitalism without offering any solid proof of their ultimate extinction. For, after all, the chief effort that is worth making is towards a civilization in which what Mr.
Graham Wallas has termed, the capacity of continuous initiative, is implied in the fact of citizenship. It is clear enough that the for algernon possibility upon which the comparison essay contrast existence of that capacity turns is a wide distribution of power. A man whose thought and article essay, acts are at the disposal of other men is deprived of his personality, and that deprivation is implied in comparison contrast the rigorous centralization to which Marx looked forward. Unquestionably, he was right in his insistence that the distribution of economic power in anthem essay help a capitalist state makes the enjoyment of such personality impossible to most; but it does not seem any more likely to emerge in the successor to it that he contemplated. We may go further and argue that it is impossible in any state where the main purpose of, and motive to, effort, is the increase of material wealth.
No society can realize itself in any full sense of the word until the mainspring of its existence is a capacity to value things of the mind as more precious than material commodities. That involves a sociology in which the essay contrast economic motive which Marx emphasized is the book i like most quran, appraised at a low level. Obviously, to achieve the comparison condition in which that appraisal is possible, involves an educational system far different, both in scope and purpose, from what we now have. It involves a complete transformation of values, in which things like the wider appreciation of art, the study of research science and philosophy. the essay release, in i like quran essay short, of the creative energies of men from their present bondage, are regarded as the comparison main and immediate effort of political organization. Yet, if historic experience is to count for anything-- and Marx's philosophy is nothing if not the critical evaluation research article interpretation of historical experience--it is exactly this transformation of values which cannot take place in the development Marx had in view. The barbarian invasions of Rome did not produce a great art and a great culture, they produced the essay dark ages. The Thirty Years' War impeded constructive effort in Germany until the threshold of the nineteenth century.
Nor has our own experience been different. The idealism of i like quran 1914 has perished before the greater strength of the purely destructive forces released in the struggle. What we have realized is how tenuous and fragile are the bonds of civilization, how little likely they are to be reinforced by any effort save that of comparison peace. In such a background, the conflict that Marx envisaged looms before us as the harbinger of writing precisely those evils from comparison essay contrast which we are seeking release. It emphasizes in men the impulses against which civilization is research, a protest.
That wrong can be wiped out with wrong, that we are to regard ourselves as the comparison essay victims of acceptance blind and impersonal forces against which it is useless to essay contrast, strive, that the possessive impulses of article essay men cannot be transcended by creative effort--these and things like these are a gospel of impossible despair. In that aspect, surely, the older socialists were right who made the basis of their creed a doctrine of right and fraternity and justice. For right and fraternity and justice imply love as their foundation; they do not spring, even at the last vain striving from a doctrine founded upon hate. The real power and influence of Marx lie in comparison essay a direction essentially different from what is generally assumed. Acceptance College Essay! He was the first thinker to expose in all its hollowness the moral inadequacy of contrast a commercial civilization.: He showed that in any society where the main effort is the attainment of wealth, the qualities that are basically noble cannot acquire their full vigour. He did, in fact, for the economic relationships of peoples what Grotius did for their international relationships. He founded both a science and the book most quran, an ideal. For he made finally impossible any economic system which makes the volume of trade the test of national well-being; and he put in the forefront of social discussion the ultimate question of the condition of the people. And he performed the incalculable service to his generation of essay contrast bringing to writing colleges in florida, it a message of hope in contrast an epoch where men seemed to themselves to have become the hapless victims of a misery from six sigma term which there was no release. Comparison Essay! In every country of the world where men have set themselves to the task of social improvement, Marx has been always the source of inspiration and prophecy.
His weaknesses, of course, are obvious and important. He diagnoses a disease admirably, says Mr. Wells, in an excellent phrase, and critical evaluation research article essay, then suggests rather an incantation than a remedy. Yet the diagnosis is an essential part of the cure. No one can read unmoved the picture he drew of the results of the Industrial Revolution. Massive in its outline, convincing in its detail, it was an indictment such as neither Carlyle nor Ruskin had power or strength to draw. It is relatively unimportant that his explanations of the phenomena he depicted have not stood the test of criticism. What is vital in the whole was his perception that a society dominated by business men and organized for the prosperity of business men had become intolerable. Hardly less splendid was his insistence that no social order is adequate in which the collective energies of men are not devoted to their common life. It does not matter that such perception had been given to comparison contrast, others, that such insistence was not new. Thesis Flowers For Algernon! No thinker of the nineteenth century drove home the comparison essay lesson with force so irresistible or with urgency so profound.
Even his advocacy of catastrophic revolution has this much of truth in it, that a point is reached in the development of any social system where men will refuse to accept any longer a burden they find too great to flowers, bear; and, in that moment, if they cannot mitigate, they will become determined to destroy. Comparison! The condition, in fact, upon evaluation research article which a state may hope to endure is its capacity for making freedom in each generation more widespread and more intense. Where Marx was wrong was in his belief that the catastrophe was, in essay itself, worthy of attainment and in his emphasis upon its ultimate benefit. But where he was, also, irresistibly right was in his prophecy that the civilization of his epoch was built upon sand. And even the faults of his prophecy may be pardoned to an agitator in exile to whom the cause of the oppressed was dearer than his own welfare. At bottom, the main passion by which he was moved was the passion for justice. He may have hated too strongly, he was jealous, and he was proud. Anthem! But the mainspring of his life was the desire to take from the shoulders of the people the burden by which it was oppressed.
He realized that what, in all varieties of time and comparison contrast, place, has caused the downfall of a governing class, has never been some accidental or superficial event. The real cause of revolution is the unworthiness of those who controlled the creative in florida destinies of a people. Indifference to suffering, selfishness, lack of moral elevation, it was for those defects that he indicted the class from which he sprang. Comparison Contrast! He transformed the fears of the workers into hopes, he translated their effort from interest in political mechanisms to interest in social foundations. He did not trust in the working of laws, he sought always for the spirit that lay behind the order of which they were the critical article essay expression. Contrast! He was often wrong, he was rarely generous, he was always bitter; yet when the roll of those to acceptance essay, whom the emancipation of the people is due comes to be called, few will have a more honourable, and none a more eminent place. 1. See A. Berthod, Proudhon et la Propriété ; C. Bougle, La Sociologic de Proudhon; G. Pirou, Proudhon et Syndicalisme Révolutionnaire ; les Amis de Proudhon, Proudhon et Ses Temps . 2. But Considerant, though his picture of the economic situation is like that of Marx, rejects revolutionary communism.
3. See Das Kapital , vol. III, pp. 80-1, and 102, for an example of two quite different theories of rent within a dozen pages. 4. Vol. III (German edition) Part 1, p. 343 ff. 5. Cf.
Herman Levy, Large and small holdings (1911).
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How George Orwell Helped Cause the Cold War. Following the publication of George Orwell’s Animal Farm , the American public suddenly discovered that the Russians had utterly divergent geopolitical interests from Americans… Animal Farm ’s positive reception in contrast Great Britain was far exceeded by its smashing success in the United States. The initial American reaction to Orwell’s fable came in the form of a favorable review in the very influential pages of Time in May 1946. Shortly thereafter, the Book-of-the-Month Club announced that Animal Farm would be its choice for the month of September, thereby guaranteeing Orwell a large audience in the United States for the first time. The Club’s selection of Animal Farm was probably the single most significant event for expanding Orwell’s reputation in his lifetime, and arguably the most important event in his entire American reputation history. “The Uncle Tom’s Cabin of our time,” announced one member of the acceptance college, Club’s selection committee. Extolling the fable’s “worldwide importance,” Club president Harry Scherman issued a special statement: “Every now and then through history, some fearless individual has spoken for the people of a troubled time….
Just so does this little gem of an allegory express, perfectly, the…inarticulate philosophy of comparison essay contrast tens of millions of free men…. Wherever men are free to read what they want, this book and its influence will spread.” As if to guarantee that outcome, Scherman also asked subscribers to pick Animal Farm rather than any alternate Club choice. The fable sold 460,000 copies during 1946-49 through the six sigma paper, Club and soon became a runaway bestseller. By 1947, it had been adapted as a BBC radio play and essay contrast translated into nine languages (and titled Comrade Napoleon in at least one language). In 1941, Arthur Koestler had bet some literary friends five bottles of research essay burgundy that Orwell would be “the greatest bestseller” among them in five years’ time: Animal Farm was proving Koestler prescient.
After the special treatment that Animal Farm received from the Book-of-the-Month Club came a rapturous welcome in America. The popular magazines—including Time , Newsweek , and the New York Times Magazine— were all enthusiastic in their admiration. One of the most flattering reviews came from the highly respected Edmund Wilson in the New Yorker. Essay Contrast! Wilson gave Orwell’s reputation a generous boost by critical research article essay comparing him as a satirist with La Fontaine, Voltaire, and Swift. Naturally, some reviewers missed the point of the allegory. Edward Weeks, writing in The Atlantic Monthly , concluded an otherwise favorable comment by comparison noting that Animal Farm showed a “clever hostility if one applies the acceptance college, analogy to contrast, Soviet Russia.” If?
To what other country could the analogy possibly have applied? The political magazines on the left reacted with confusion and anger. They were still committed to the ideal of Soviet-American friendship and thus viewed Animal Farm as a lethal threat to anthem, that cause. The winds of the Cold War had not yet begun to blow strongly through the American literary scene. Isaac Rosenfeld in The Nation raised contrived, ideologically motivated reasons for comparison disliking Orwell’s tale, which were more obviously concerned with political than literary factors. He denied, for example, that Orwell’s interpretation had any validity when applied to Russia. Rosenfeld conceded that at one time such a view had some relation to most, reality. But he argued that offering such an comparison, interpretation now made Animal Farm a reactionary work. There was little that Rosenfeld liked about Animal Farm . He believed that it not only failed to explain why the article, revolution was betrayed but, what was worse in his eyes, told readers things about Russia we already knew. This was a strange view from a journal that had sought to justify every switch of the communist line during the 1930s.
If Rosenfeld found Animal Farm insignificant, George Soule in comparison the New Republic revealed a naivete and hostility toward it that, particularly in hindsight, is embarrassing. According to Soule, Animal Farm was “dull” and the allegory was “a creaky machine for saying in a clumsy way things that have been better said directly.” He neglected to say where these things were said better. Certainly not in the pages of the New Republic , which had been one of the most consistent apologists for Soviet Russia in the United States. Soule managed the difficult task of confusing the identities of both Snowball and Napoleon. Term! He thought Napoleon was supposed to essay contrast, represent Lenin, failing to recognize Stalin’s character in the successful pig who betrayed the Bolshevik Revolution. Soule took strong exception to Orwell’s description of the anthem essay help, young dogs being trained as secret police, asking if one was supposed to take that seriously as a commentary on comparison essay, Soviet education. Paper! He also could not see any relationship between the slaughter of the comparison, old workhorse, Boxer, and any event in Soviet Russian history. That claim represents further testimony regarding his understanding, or rather lack of understanding, of Stalin’s USSR in the 1930s, especially the purge of the faithful so-called Old Bolsheviks who had made the revolution a success.
Yet such unfavorable reviews in the progressive journals could not offset the impact of the endorsement of the popular magazines. Quite to the contrary. From the six sigma, moment of its American launch in August 1946, Animal Farm became a bestseller, ultimately selling more than ten million copies in comparison contrast the United States alone. The Book I Like Essay! Three reasons for this are quite clear. First, the comparison essay contrast, story itself was simple enough to be understood by anyone who wanted to understand it. Essay! Second, like all artful fables, it could be appreciated on at least two levels: as a children’s tale of how “power corrupts” and essay contrast as a sophisticated indictment of the Russians’ betrayal of their own revolution. Third, Animal Farm appeared just as the thesis for algernon, Cold War began to essay contrast, obsess the American public. Essay! People suddenly discovered that the Russians had utterly divergent geopolitical interests from Americans. They became aware that the comparison essay, USSR was no longer willing to cooperate with the Western allies—Stalin was no benign Uncle Joe.
Orwell’s tale of the venality of the revolutionaries thus found a more responsive audience in America than in flowers for algernon Great Britain, which did not have the essay, responsibilities of the United States as a world power and therefore did not come into direct conflict with the Soviet Union. Even before midcentury, Animal Farm had become a minor classic in the United States. Celebrated as a short, accessible tale of Bolshevik history precisely when the anticommunist “Red Scare” years were reaching their crescendo, the college essay, fable’s popularity was aided by the Cold War success of nonfiction counterparts such as the memoirs of Louis Budenz ( Men Without Faces: The Communist Conspiracy in the U.S.A. , 1950) and Bella Dodd ( School of Darkness: The Record of a Life and of a Conflict Between Two Faiths , 1954). Scarcely a high school or college student anywhere in America in the 1950s did not encounter Animal Farm as an assigned reading. Orwell’s cleverness with words and comparison contrast his recognition of the significance of slogans served to evaluation research essay, create catchphrases that were soon exploited to reveal the reality of Russian communism. “All animals are equal, but some are more equal than others” was especially effective in capturing the hypocrisy of the Bolshevik Revolution turned into a bureaucratic nightmare. Orwell’s success with Animal Farm not only made him financially secure but also, according to comparison essay contrast, his good friend British anarchist George Woodcock, mellowed him. He no longer had any problems getting his work published and in fact found himself in demand to term paper, write articles and reviews. In America, he contributed to essay contrast, the Atlantic Monthly and even the New Republic , which had finally become suspicious of the Soviet Union. In fact, he soon wrote more for the American than he did for the English audience. As the literary world commemorates the seventieth anniversary of evaluation research article Animal Farm ’s immense success in the U.S. (and soon thereafter on the wider international scene), our attention is inevitably drawn to another literary anniversary on the immediate horizon: the appearance of comparison contrast 1984 in 1949. (Orwell’s American publisher, Harcourt Brace, retitled the paper, novel 1984 —a diabolically ironic case of what could be termed numerical Newspeak.) 1984 occasioned even greater praise than Animal Farm and contrast came to exert a far greater worldwide impact.
In hindsight, it is as if in 1945-46 the atomic bomb of the book i like Animal Farm exploded on the cultural front—soon followed by the hydrogen bomb of comparison essay 1984 , whose arsenal of catchwords detonated three years later. With these two bombshells, Orwell gave Western intellectuals, as it were, an exclusive atomic option ideologically, a first-strike capability against acceptance college essay, ex-Comrade Napoleon and his pig tyranny, along with all their cultural coconspirators. As if to confirm the genius of comparison essay contrast these twin masterpieces and six sigma Orwell’s status as the Dr. Frankenstein of the age, the Trotskyist (and sometime Stalin apologist) Isaac Deutscher could bemoan that 1984 had become by essay contrast 1955 “an ideological superweapon” in the Cold War of words. Irving Howe noted in his essay on Orwell’s 1984 , “History as Nightmare,” that readers have a reluctance to reread some books, no matter how impressive they are.
1984 is such a work. Its somber forecast of the thesis for algernon, future is almost too vivid and too horrifying to contrast, contemplate. That was not the case with Animal Farm , given its imaginative way of dealing with the cruelties of the Russian Revolution. The world of 1984 was Orwell’s vision of what a totalitarian society would look like after decades of protracted war between the West and the communist world, a war of rationing, shortages, distorting the truth, and the killing of innocent people. Like Animal Farm , it emerged from essay, Orwell’s personal experience. Always sensitive to the written word, Orwell had seen how the comparison, events of the Spanish Civil War and Russia’s role in World War II had been distorted for ideological purposes. In the world of acceptance college 1984 , ideology was unimportant and history was simply rewritten. Orwell again showed insight into the future superior to that of most of his contemporaries. Hitler had burned books; in the future, Orwell predicted, totalitarian regimes would simply rewrite them, a process already under way in Russia. 1984 also revealed the extent to which Orwell was a product of the bourgeois age. He scorned the regimentation and impersonalization of life in the future and the destruction of the individual under totalitarianism, in a manner that made 1984 broadly fit a conservative interpretation.
1984 was commonly taken as an indictment of communism and not as a tendency of the modern state in general. When it was published in June 1949, 1984 was another Book-of-the-Month Club selection. “Great Books Make Themselves” proclaimed the August 1949 Book-of-the-Month Club News , in comparison a headline running over ecstatic tributes from Bertrand Russell, Arthur Schlesinger Jr., and others. Nothing, of course, could have been wider of the mark than the research article, headline’s declaration. Comparison Essay! Already in July, the flowers for algernon, new Club president had predicted 1984 would become “one of the comparison contrast, most influential books of critical evaluation research essay our generation,” a view the Book-of-the-Month Club News now repeated. Comparison Contrast! The Club acknowledged it had solicited the opinions of “prominent persons” like Russell and Schlesinger who now confirmed the Club’s “certainty that Mr. Orwell’s book will be one of the most widely discussed books in most quran recent years.” Subsequent kudos for 1984 from other “prominent persons” on both sides of the Atlantic (V.S. Pritchett, E.M. Forster, Rebecca West, Lionel Trilling, Philip Rahv, Reinhold Niebuhr, Paul de Kruif) helped ensure that result. Comparison Essay! Leading intellectuals compared Orwell with Dostoyevsky, Wells, Huxley, and others in the anti-utopian tradition. Within five months, the novel had sold 22,700 hardback copies in anthem essay help England.
Eventually, it rose to number three on the New York Times bestseller list during 1949. It sold 190,000 copies as a Book-of-the-Month Club choice during 1949-52 and became an comparison essay contrast, American bestseller in 1951 when it appeared as a Signet paperback. 1984 was also condensed in Reader’s Digest —a sure sign Orwell had gained wide popular acceptance in term paper America. The reviews were uniformly favorable. Unlike Animal Farm , 1984 was well received even in the leftist journals of opinion. After the Berlin blockade, the communist coup d’etat in Czechoslovakia, and comparison the first signs of Russian espionage, Orwell’s nightmare of the future no longer seemed so unreal to essay help, the American left. Orwell was disturbed by the way both Animal Farm and 1984 were used by conservatives as indictments of British socialism, and he often protested this interpretation of his writings. Yet he did not foresee how his ideas would be expropriated by those with views diametrically opposed to comparison essay contrast, his. There is no doubt he was ingeniously exploited in the service of the most damaging criticism of the left. What made his comments so effective was that they came from a man whose own leftist credentials were beyond dispute. I Like! Orwell never found a way of counteracting the conservative exploitation of his ideas and criticism.
Though it was never his major purpose to censure socialism for its failures in comparison the modern world, this crude verdict is leveled at his work by the book i like most quran essay many American critics. The Cold War formed the environment that enabled Orwell to seize the imagination of the American public. Unfortunately, Orwell’s major impact on Americans came essentially through his last two books. As a result, his other work has been relatively neglected. Comparison Essay! His critical essays—which include pioneering examinations of anthem help topics as varied as English postcards, Rudyard Kipling, and comparison essay the art of the murder mystery—have never secured a large readership in the United States. This is creative colleges regrettable. In fact, a case can be made that his forte was the comparison essay, essay form, which was particularly well-suited to creative writing colleges, the crisp, clear prose style that Orwell had mastered. He liked championing unpopular causes and comparison contrast could make a convincing case in the short essay.
Orwell conceived Animal Farm and 1984 as complementary works that would pack a lethal one-two punch against totalitarianism in general and Stalinism in the book quran particular, indeed against the betrayal of revolutionary dreams generally and against the Russian Revolution. It often goes unnoticed even by discerning readers that Animal Farm and 1984 form a unified whole. 1984 opens where Animal Farm ends: the comparison essay contrast, pigs are in control. They have become fully humanized. They are now the Inner Party and the book i like quran Outer Party members (with occasional gadfly exceptions, such as rebellious Winston and comparison Julia). Napoleon has morphed into Big Brother, Snowball has become Emmanuel Goldstein, the Seven Commandments of Animalism have been transformed into the catchphrases of Hate Week and writing the famous slogans in Newspeak. The pigs’ tyrannical fiefdom of Animal Farm is now Airstrip One, the metropolitan capital of the Party’s empire of Oceania. Any reader may easily elaborate on contrast, these analogues. The larger point is obvious.
It is creative writing colleges in florida all one vision. Orwell’s fable and dystopia both succeed as carefully crafted works that interweave almost seamlessly the artistic and the political, the literary and the polemical. Comparison Essay! They are the masterpieces of a great writer and acceptance college essay political adept, and they are also unforgettable mindscapes of the ultimate horrors to which dictatorial power may lead. Orwell could with complete justice joke not long after the publication of comparison essay contrast Animal Farm , as he enjoyed the laudatory reviews and the congratulations of colleagues, that readers had not appreciated his achievement sufficiently. He groused in mock disappointment: “Nobody said it was a beautiful book.” Indeed, it is a beautiful book, and six sigma paper its successor does not warrant that adjective. 1984 is a bleak, horrifying, utterly brilliant artistic and political vision. Hence these final two works ensure Orwell’s place in literature.
Like all great writers, he understood human nature profoundly. His honesty and his hatred of comparison contrast all cant—what we today would dub “political correctness”—attract new readers as each generation comes to maturity. Creative Writing Colleges! If he was originally adopted in the United States for the wrong reasons, time has shown the enduring validity and vitality of his artistic and political mission, as he declared about comparison contrast, Animal Farm , “to fuse political and artistic purpose into one whole.” This is the second essay in a two-part series. Flowers! The first essay may be found here. Comparison! Books on the topic of i like most quran this essay may be found in comparison essay The Imaginative Conservative Bookstore. Six Sigma Paper! Republished with gracious permission from comparison essay, Modern Age (Fall 2016). Published: Nov 26, 2016. Misremembering the Russian Revolution: Romanticism Not Reality. The Islamophobes Are Right … and Also Wrong. How the Medieval Church Made Modern Liberty.
Thanks for the marvelous background. You mention the historical background to both Animal Farm and 1984. Has anyone written and ‘this is that’ book about them or even a annotated version of i like most essay either?