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Apush 2008 Dbq Essays and Research Papers. APUSH DBQ Lexus Weigand 3/3/14 From 1875 to 1900, there was a new kind of city in America, one that was based on . industry, and industry needs workers. The factories needed hundreds of workers to run machinery and other processes in manufacturing, but these workers were not treated properly and they wanted to anthem essay help, do something to improve the way that they were treated. The organized labor, although it showed some minor successes, was overall very unsuccessful in improving the position of workers. History of the United States , Homestead Strike , Industrial unionism 962 Words | 3 Pages. ?Jack Magill APUSH /Period 4 18 November 2014 The Jacksonian Rule The 1820’s in the United States saw a presidential election won on in essay, a . Anthem Help? “corrupt bargain”, a Yankee Misfit in office, and asking question the end of the era of Good Feelings; the United States was desperate for anthem help, a fresh new face to take office and i like most essay restore power to the people. Andrew Jackson and his comrades did what they believed in, what they thought was necessary to uphold the use of the constitution to guide the administration and give power to the. Anthem Essay Help? Andrew Jackson , Federal government of the United States , Georgia 1423 Words | 5 Pages. DBQ #1 When first founded, The New England and Chesapeake colonies were both very similar because of their English heritage and their . mission to survive in the new world in themes which they had landed.
Throughout the 1600’s the immigrants of the two regions longed for essay help, a new and better life escaping religious persecution, poverty, and political tyranny. Although their initial goals were the same, the two regions evolved into two very different and themes essays unique societies by anthem help, the 1700’s based off of their social. Massachusetts , Massachusetts Bay Colony , New England 1402 Words | 4 Pages. DBQ - New England VS the Chesapeake Colonies Although New England and the Chesapeake region were both settled by people of English origin, by the boy pyjamas essay questions, . 1700 the regions had evolved into two distinct societies. Essay? There were social, political, and economic differences between the two regions. The main reason as to why this development occurred was that the Chesapeake concentrated on cotton club harlem renaissance essays, obtaining wealth whereas New England had strong religious beliefs. With different goals in mind, the two regions separated due. England , Government , Greater London 902 Words | 3 Pages. Carson Mayes DBQ APUSH During the election of anthem essay help, 1800, Jefferson ran for club renaissance essays, the Democratic-Republic party. His philosophy on . government had always been to help, have a strict interpretation of the Constitution along with the strong belief in state rights over a strong central government that his opposing Federalist party wanted.
His beliefs on a frugal and lady limited government, reduced army and navy, and the repeal of taxes were all issues that helped maintain his philosophy of help, government as well as. Alexander Hamilton , Alien and Sedition Acts , Federalism 880 Words | 3 Pages. Ollie Cunningham APUSH per. 5 October 31, 2010 Civil War and lady macbeth sleepwalking essay Reconstruction DBQ The United States Civil War was one of anthem help, . The Book Most Quran Essay? America’s darkest hours of anthem, nationhood, but resulted in new rights and liberties for African Americans and revolutionized the United States for the book most quran, the better. Essay? The war resulted in the freedom of black slaves, and called for a complex reunification procedure to rejoin the asking question depleted South and the high spirited North. Constitutional and social developments during the Civil War and. Anthem? Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Democratic Party 842 Words | 3 Pages.
2003 AP US DBQ The Progressive Era was a twenty year period, between 1900 and 1920, of much change in the U.S. Many Americans would begin . to stand up for what they believed was right. This would lead to a number of reforms to themes essays, help improve American life. Laws passed under Presidents Roosevelt, Taft, and Wilson, would dramatically change this country all the way into the present time. As industry became a large part of urban America, many citizens were oppressed. Unfair and unsanitary conditions. African American , Democracy , Franklin D. Roosevelt 973 Words | 3 Pages. ? APUSH Document-Based Question #3 British rule over its American colonies was selfish and unfair. They were over three thousand miles away, . ruling from afar. Britain used the anthem essay help colonies to get ahead economically and didn’t care what happened to pyjamas questions, the colonies. They taxed the essay help colonists and the boy essay questions passed laws that the colonists believed infringed on essay, their human rights of freedom. Many people believe that the Revolutionary War was a result of thesis, social and political differences and controversies.
However, the. American Revolutionary War , British Empire , Colonialism 736 Words | 3 Pages. 990 DBQ Jackson’s followers were common men who believed in the rights for the lower and working classes, strict interpretation of the . constitution,and democracy instead of a republic. Many of his followers were inspired when Jackson rose from little education and social opportunity and anthem essay help took President, and they knew he would protect their rights and fight for the “Common man ,” instead of the elite. Supporters and followers of Andrew Jackson believed they were the guardians of the i like most quran Constitution. Democracy , Second Bank of the United States , Social class 789 Words | 3 Pages. 2002 AP DBQ In the years following the War of 1812, the “Era of Good Feelings” evolved between the years 1815 and 1825.
In the first half of . this period, there was a strong sense of essay, nationalism throughout the United States. However, political changes and economic differences between the states warped this nationalism into the sectionalism that divided the country into north, south and west regions. Celebrations of unity within the United States soon turned into disagreements concerning representation. American Civil War , Louisiana , Maryland 1460 Words | 4 Pages. 9/30/14 A.P. The Book? U.S. History . 240-01 1993 DBQ In the essay help 17th century, all of the 13 colonies in America were under British rule and for algernon shared the same religion, culture, language, and essay origin.
By 1700, different colonial regions were developing different societies. Motivational, economical, and political. Connecticut , Massachusetts , Middle Colonies 923 Words | 3 Pages. ?James Dougherty APUSH Period 1 Mr. Young “p2406From 1781 to 1789 the i like essay p2407Articles of Confederation provided the United States with an . Anthem Help? effective government. Using the documents and flowers for algernon your knowledge of the period, evaluate this statement. Anthem Essay? From 1781 up until 1789 the United States government was based off of the principles of the macbeth Articles of Confederation which were created after the Revolutionary War.
The articles of confederation created a republic which limited its leaders from much of. Articles of Confederation , Federal government of the United States , President of the United States 1147 Words | 4 Pages. ?Krista Angeliadis 12/17/14 APUSH Period 8 The era from 1860 to 1877 was a time of . reconstruction and revolution in America. Many constitutional developments aided the help reform movement, such as the ratification of the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments, which granted African Americans voting and civil rights. Though these changes seemed like a step in the right direction, social values such as white supremacy didn’t allow things to go as planned. Despite. African American , Black people , Jim Crow laws 1031 Words | 4 Pages. Chapter 10 DBQ The ratification of the constitution in 1788 did not end the debate over the book essay, the nature and functions of the . government. Majors concerns arose from the ratification mainly involving too much federal power and not enough rights for African Americans. Though the constitution had many critics, I believe that constitution was fundamentally sound but just in anthem essay help need of minor adjustments.
In the constitution slaves were given freedom, they just needed citizenship rights. Another. Federal government of the United States , President of the the boy in striped questions United States , Thomas Jefferson 871 Words | 3 Pages. answer be sure to help, address the political, social, and for argumentative economic effects of the Revolution in the period from anthem essay, 1775 to 1800. Notes from Mr. Williams: This . essay was g iven to 2 nd period APUSH on their first in - class essay. Included were 10 documents (if interested in seeing them, please come into class). The DBQ writer needed to take ideas and topics from the documents, and ADD significant outside fact and analysis. Notice that this writer does a complete job. He/she deals with the entire question. American Revolution , American Revolutionary War , Nationalism 259 Words | 2 Pages. ? APUSH – DBQ’s SINCE 1995 1995 – Analyze the changes that occurred during the 1960’s in the goals, strategies, and support of the movement . for African-American civil rights.
1996 – In what ways and to what extent did constitutional and social developments between 1860 and 1877 amount to a revolution? 1997 – To what extent did economic and sleepwalking essay political developments as well as assumptions about the nature of women affect the position of American women during the anthem period 1890-1925? 1998 – With respect. Themes Essays? American Revolution , Cold War , Democratic Party 529 Words | 2 Pages. Albert Moncada Jr.
Ms. Oberman AP U.S. History, Period 6 2 February 2012 APUSH DBQ Reform movements in the United States . from 1825-1850 greatly benefited to expand democratic ideals that shape our nation today, but they also limited the expansion with some reforms. Reform movements took place in the North to fight off the anthem help forced labor and cruelty of slavery, and essay throughout the states, religious revivals and women rights movements arose. Essay? These reform movements expanded the for argumentative essays democratic ideals by. Democracy , Frederick Douglass , Human rights 729 Words | 2 Pages.
DBQ Essay Chesapeake Colonies vs. Essay Help? New England Colonies The English had no desire to colonize the new world prior to defeating the Spanish . Armada. However, once they defeated the Spanish in themes 1588, thus ending Spanish colonization, the English became the rulers of the Atlantic and a newly found patriotism flourished in England. The English had tried desperately to colonize the new world, failing two times before succeeding in Jamestown, Virginia, one of the Chesapeake Bay colonies. The northern most.
British America , Chesapeake Bay , Colonialism 856 Words | 3 Pages. DBQ The American Revolution changed the American society between 1775-1800. The areas in anthem help the American society that were changed were . economical, political, and the boy in striped pyjamas essay social. ways. The new country had to essay, set up their own government and deal with the problems that came along with it since it was inexperienced. That brought problems between the society and political side. Native Americans and women had their own concerns and question opinions. Therefore, the American Revolution changed the help American Society. ‘ . American Revolution , Articles of Confederation , John Adams 386 Words | 2 Pages. Adams, Jefferson, Madison, and Monroe Newman Schmalbach: Chapters 5 (pg 83) -8 QUIZ DATES (subject to change) Chapter 6 (and part of 5): Tuesday, . October 15 EXAM DATES Chapter 7: Tuesday, October 22 Chapter 8/9: Wednesday, October 30 Unit 2 DBQ : Monday October 28-Tuesday, October 29 Unit 2.1 IDs: Friday, October 25 Unit 2.2 IDs: Monday, November 4 Unit 2 Multiple Choice: Wednesday, November 6 Unit 2 Essay: Thursday, November 7 1. Which of the social changes brought about by the Revolution.
American Revolution , Articles of Confederation , Native Americans in the United States 558 Words | 2 Pages. I have been asked to speak on the question how to make the best of life, but may as well confess at once that I know nothing about it. I cannot think that I . have made the lady macbeth sleepwalking essay best of my own life, nor is essay help, it likely that I shall make much better of what may or may not remain to me. I do not even know how to make the best of the twenty minutes that your committee has placed at my disposal, and as for life as a whole, who ever yet made the thesis best of such a colossal opportunity by conscious effort and anthem essay deliberation. Afterlife , Consciousness , Death 2360 Words | 6 Pages. The colonies in New England were settled by a group of separatists called the Puritans, which were a tightly knitted community based on strong faith. . This community of cotton club harlem, New England Puritans influenced religious liberties, education, and obedience in the colonies from the 1630's-1660's by relating them to anthem, their religious morals and beliefs. ` As the Puritans began forming their governments and rules, much of New England was just beginning to be settled. Although in macbeth document E the Puritans.
Christianity , Freedom of religion , God 869 Words | 3 Pages. ? DBQ In the time period 1925 – 1950 Chinese peasants, and Chinese created a bad relationship with each other. Peasants were stronger than the . Chinese Communist party supported by documents one, five, and six, peasants were the prime target for help, attacks instead of the Chinese Communist party supported by documents four, eight, and thesis flowers nine, and the peasants were more willing to help, fight the Japanese while the Chinese Communist party was not so willing supported by documents two, and three. Peasants and the. Chen Duxiu , Chinese Civil War , Communism 828 Words | 3 Pages. Lady Macbeth Sleepwalking? ?Ariana Biagioni DBQ : Topic A: The Ancient Near East November 24, 2013 Professor Goldman During the anthem help time of Dynasty 18 in Egypt, many . religious, economic, and social connections were created amongst the various regions in the Near East. In these regions, new groups of themes essays, people, religions, and empires were formed. The Near East helped surface civilization. It established centralized governments, law codes, and anthem writing systems. The Ancient Near Eastern Empires introduced the methods of agriculture.
Ancient Near East , Assyria , Babylon 1120 Words | 4 Pages. APUSH - Cornwell FEB 16-24, 2011 1. INDUSTRIAL AMERICA in the LATE NINETEENTH CENTURY • Corporate consolidation of industry • . Cotton Club? Effects of technological development on the worker and workplace • Labor and anthem unions • National politics and asking question influence of corporate power • Migration and immigration: changing face of the nation • Proponents and opponents of the new order (e.g. “Social Darwinism and Social Gospel”) AMSCO pp. 333-347 (CH 17) EV pp. 543-573 (CH 18) ESSENTIAL. Anthem Essay? Capitalism , Chinese Exclusion Act , Collective bargaining 495 Words | 4 Pages. Kevin Li 1994 DBQ APUSH To what extent was late 19th century and early 20th century US expansionism a continuation of past US . Harlem Renaissance? expansionism and to what extent was it a departure? Over the years the United States expansionism has experienced many different changes. Anthem Help? The United States has expanded for many different reasons such as the economy, land, and even God. Expansionism is now a continuation of past United States expansionism but was more so a departure.
The United States. Atlantic Ocean , Manifest Destiny , Monroe Doctrine 680 Words | 2 Pages. AP European History DBQ Activity Using the APEURO DBQ from 2008 answer the following questions. . Write down the question you are going to be answering. Explain the reasons for club essays, the adaptation of a new calendar in the revolutionary France and analyze reactions to it in the period of anthem, 1789 to 1806. Write down the 6 elements of the basic core you will be scored on and explain how you will receive these points. 1. Thesis 2. Majority. Catholic Church , Documents , Explanation 349 Words | 3 Pages. APUSH DBQ ESSAY From 1775 to 1830, the United States gained their independence and began their formation of a new country. . In Striped Pyjamas Essay Questions? During this period, the ideas of the Revolutionary War had an influence on the African Americans. A number of African Americans were freed but the institution of anthem essay, slavery spread due to social and economic reasons.
Both the free African Americans and enslaved confronted and endure the challenges they faced as they fought for rights and equality. The Revolutionary War was a. In Striped Pyjamas Questions? African American , American Civil War , Black people 712 Words | 2 Pages. Anthem Essay? APUSH : DBQ 1st Semester Final DISCLAIMER: This is NOT the i like most essay only way to do this essay, don’t take any of this as gospel. Essay Help? We . are people. Thesis Flowers For Algernon? If you disagree, go ahead and do it your way. Essay Help? That will work too. We are not responsible for your essay, that is your job. Themes For Argumentative? We are simply here to get a headstart.
What is needed for a better DBQ ? more analysis beyond the basic information from the documents. ? look at relationships (this caused what to happen or emerge as a result of. Essay Help? ) even if the DBQ doesn't ask you to. Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Andrew Jackson 757 Words | 3 Pages. Kibby 1 Pierce Kibby Thursday, February 28, 2013 Expansionism DBQ APUSH Expansionism Throughout American . history, growth has always been present in industry, economics, technology and many other fronts. This of for argumentative essays, course began when the first European settlers of America came from England. The most important growth our country has undergone is the growth of size. Starting at a few settlements and evolving into a world power in just a few hundred years illustrates the rate at which. Great power , Louisiana Purchase , Military 925 Words | 3 Pages. Colonial America before 1763 (Brinkley- Ch.
1-3) Mrs. Hedley- APUSH Unit I: Overview Overview of the Time Period: This unit focuses on the . settlement of the New World and essay early colonial history. It was during this time period that the original thirteen colonies were founded and cotton renaissance began to evolve into three distinct areas divided by diverse cultural, economic, religious, political, and help social differences = SECTIONALISM. Your Objectives: 1. To become familiar with the people, places, and events. British Empire , British North America , Colonial history of the United States 1135 Words | 7 Pages. For Argumentative? APUSH 29 November 2012 Slavery DBQ At the end of the Revolutionary war against Great Britain, the United States of America . was created as an independent country.
Thus began the roots of an entirely new American identity. Anthem Help? Taking influence from its former mother countries, the United States began its own system of representative government. Furthermore, the American identity, shaped in asking question in essay the early years of 1775 to 1830, incorporated the ideals of essay help, agrarian farming, laissez-faire economic standpoint. American Civil War , American Revolutionary War , Native Americans in the United States 944 Words | 3 Pages. Paige Reinfeld Jacksonian DBQ The uproar of the people of the U.S. was heard after the corrupted elections of 1824. It wasn’t until 1828, . the year the Jacksonians came into power and satisfied the popular demand after a mudslinging battle against the aristocrats. The Jacksonian Democrats claimed they were guardians of the thesis Constitution, political democracy, individual liberties, and equal economic opportunity, but the 1820’s and 1830’s put those claims to the test. The Jacksonian Democrats claimed. Anthem Essay? Andrew Jackson , Democracy , Democratic Party 599 Words | 2 Pages. xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Period 1 15 April, 2013 Mrs. I Like Most? Nelson Civil Rights Take Home DBQ In the years before the 60’s, the African Americans . living all over the country were treated as less than every white person because of their skin color and anthem help their historical background of slavery and servitude.
During the era of the 1960’s, the African Americans and part of the white community fought for equal civil rights. Average Americans, Black and lady sleepwalking essay White, stood up against the opposing population to essay help, voice their. African American , Black people , John F. Kennedy 576 Words | 2 Pages. Jimmy Herrmann APUSH DBQ Essay Mrs. Rudolph The immediate years after the for algernon Civil War, 1860-1877, saw the United States . through a revolution. Reform movements and changing states of mind among the American people contributed to the revolution with regards to constitutional and social aspects of life at essay help, that time.
The passage of Civil Rights Legislation such as the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments; and, ironically, the KKK and other social events helped with the reform. Alone these things couldn’t. African American history , American Civil War , COINTELPRO 585 Words | 2 Pages. Thesis For Algernon? 1991 DBQ In the essay aftermath of World War I, during the years 1917-1921, President Wilson advocated the Treaty of the book quran essay, Versailles, which called for . the principle of self-determination, the anthem essay help formation of a League of Nations, and general amnesty towards Germany, as the thesis flowers for algernon solution for peace. However, his unwillingness to compromise led to widespread disagreement. Help? The opposition forces in most quran the U.S. Anthem Help? senate consisted of the reservationists, who were willing to ratify the Treaty of Versailles with amendments, and. Central Powers , League of Nations , Paris Peace Conference, 1919 671 Words | 2 Pages. DBQ During the 1800s, the United States more than tripled in size, covering the asking entire width of the continent.
Throughout this period, they . united states acquired land through several different methods including the Louisiana purchase of 1803, the war of 1812, the trail of tears, the Mexican cession, and the compromise of 1850. Each of which came with its own group of supporters and opponents with different reasons of why or why not. However, every debate ultimately led to the United States government’s. Andrew Jackson , Louisiana , Louisiana Purchase 781 Words | 2 Pages. Anthem Help? Zack Seldes 2000 DBQ The Second Industrial Revolution skyrocketed with new inventions and machines and changed how factories and jobs were . The Book I Like Most Quran Essay? worked. As the industries grew, so did the need for anthem help, unions among the workers. To a minimal degree, the unions were successful in very tiny things but not enough to improve the overall position of the worker. They were not highly successful, as they would be defeated and have to go back to square one. The ruthless determination of big business to shut down. Capitalism , Collective bargaining , Employment 667 Words | 2 Pages. In late 1524, the Holy Roman Empire was shocked when peasants, craftsmen, and poor soldiers suddenly revolted against them, pilfering and killing innocent . people.
This was in part due to the religious upheaval known as the Reformation when many critics of the Catholic faith challenged the political order and religious authority of the church. Reformation was due in part thanks to Martin Luther, who founded Lutheranism, sparking the revolution among the peasants. It was also due in fact to the. For Algernon? Bavaria , Bishop , Feudalism 982 Words | 3 Pages. During the 1600s, British citizens left England and began settling in the Chesapeake and New England regions, yet these regions developed differently. . Migrants came to the New World with distinct motives that, in effect made the regions develop differently; the New Englanders came in search of religious freedom while the Chesapeake settlers came in search of economic prosperity. The New Englanders search for religious freedom caused them to essay, develop a diverse economy, societies with tightly bound. England , Human migration , Massachusetts 1052 Words | 3 Pages. Morgan Ridley APUSH Gold 11/7/14 John Marshall as Chief Justice . America is in a time of governmental crisis between the Federal and State governments, and under one branch, the line between these is dictated by flowers for algernon, constitutionality.
John Marshall the chief justice under the essay help legislative branch of the united states ruled over many cases which established precedents for national supremacy over states rights, defined the roles of the harlem renaissance essays Supreme Court and Congress, and provided the constitutional foundation for anthem help, . Federal government of the lady macbeth sleepwalking United States , President of the United States , Supreme Court of the United States 725 Words | 2 Pages. Anthem Help? AP US History DBQ Essay Even though the loyalist opposed the American Revolution, Patriots wanted to create a nation with equality and the boy questions a . complete different society compared to the Great Britain (Doc B). They expressed the importance of people’s rights, economic strength, and freedom for every citizen. Anthem? However, the American Revolution did not meet the needs and hopes that they had expected; they have suffered from economic instability, failed to control their alliances with other countries, political. American Revolution , Articles of Confederation , Native Americans in sleepwalking the United States 689 Words | 2 Pages. Booker T. Anthem Essay Help? Washington and W.E.B. Du Bois offered different strategies for in essay, dealing with the problems of poverty and discrimination faced by Black Americans at . the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth centuries. Using the documents and your knowledge of the period 1877-1915, assess the appropriateness of anthem help, each of these strategies in the historical context in thesis for algernon which each was developed.
In reference to the years between 1877 and 1915, I assessed that, based on between each of. Essay Help? African American , Black people , Negro 1318 Words | 4 Pages. For many years before the actual Revolutionary War, the Americans and the British already had built up grievances and hate between each other. Some may argue . Asking In Essay? with such tension, war was inevitable. In the famous Declaration of essay help, Independence, the Americans not only declared their freedom but also included a list of flowers for algernon, their grievances addressed to King George III. Anthem Help? The events leading to these accusations explain the complaints leveled against asking the King and prove their validity. One of the charges against. American Revolution , Benjamin Franklin , Boston Tea Party 1479 Words | 4 Pages.
The Labor Movement generated opposition from anthem, both the government and the public since them both saw unions as violent and lawless. The government used force . to control the unions showing their disgust for the views and actions of these organizations. In Striped Essay? Well- organized and growing businesses took the advantage in the struggle with labor, so the workers started labor unions. The very first labor union, The National Labor Union was started in 1866. This union lasted for six years and had 600,000 members. American Railway Union , Employment , Eugene V. Debs 930 Words | 3 Pages. ?A Discourse to Promote Colonization (1584) 1. Hakluyt’s arguments for anthem help, colonization included agricultural use of the land, spread of essay, their religion, easy to . travel to (for trade), it would increase money in the economy because they would stop trade with other countries, they could increase their realm with their wealth that they earn from colonization of America, and they could defeat their enemies with their new found wealth. Some of the arguments are more persuasive the others after four hundred. Native Americans in the United States 1613 Words | 5 Pages.
Ganigan, Li, Wong 1 Anastasiya Li, Kaili Ganigan, Vanessa Wong Miss Conner AP US History 10 December 2014 . Historians have traditionally labeled the anthem period after the War of 1812 the “Era of Good Feelings.” Evaluate the accuracy of this label, considering the emergence of nationalism and sectionalism. Use the documents and your knowledge of the period 18151825 to construct your answer. The Era of Good Feelings, which took place during James Monroe's two terms serving as President of the United States. Marxism 814 Words | 7 Pages. “From 1781 to 1789 the Articles of Confederation provided the United States with an effective government.” This statement is asking in essay, quite bold considering that the . Essay Help? Articles lasted only lady macbeth essay eight years. In some ways this form of government was effective and in some ways it was not. Anthem Essay Help? It did provide the themes essays newly formed American colonies with the means to govern themselves in anthem help the manner that they wished to be governed and set the rules for operations of the United States government. On the other hand, it was ineffective. Articles of Confederation , Massachusetts , Northwest Ordinance 832 Words | 3 Pages. Conflicts Between Great Britain and the North American Colonies During the 18th century, many conflicts arose between Great Britain and thesis for algernon the North American . colonies. These conflicts are eventually what led to the American Revolution. These tensions between Britain and the colonies were a combination of anthem, both economic interests, and political/social differences.
Economic conflicts between the two included “The Navigation Law”, “The Sugar Act”, “The Stamp Act”, restrictions on trade, and more. In Striped Pyjamas? Political. American Revolution , Boston Tea Party , British Empire 1147 Words | 4 Pages. The American Revolution shocked the world; no one had ever expected a small group of colonies to fight for and win their own independence from the help seemingly . greatest and most omnipresent country on earth. Americans had worked for lady sleepwalking, and thought about the moment of their freedom for years, and their sense of individuality ran deep. By the eve of the American Revolution, colonists in America had developed a strong sense of anthem, identity as Americans, but only somewhat of the boy pyjamas essay, unity as a single country. In events. American Revolution , Benjamin Franklin , Boston Tea Party 969 Words | 3 Pages. During the anthem help Washington, Adams, and Jefferson administrations (from 1776 to 1807) neutrality was America’s main foreign policy. In determining that neutrality . I Like Most Quran? was the overall focus of American diplomacy, one must assess the deviations from, as well as the success, of help, neutrality. Neutrality was originally implemented by George Washington in order to maintain the question in essay young country’s best interests.
However, lapses in anthem help neutrality occurred when the government was forced to favor one foreign power, either Great. American Revolutionary War , Europe , George Washington 1401 Words | 4 Pages. Essays? Imagine a lifetime of hard work being squashed for essay, political gain. This may be a reality for hundreds of United States athletes training for renaissance, the . 2008 summer Olympics in Beijing. Although human rights have been violated in China, they will still be the host country of the Olympics 2008 . Despite the fact that China “invaded and still occupies Tibet… [and] infringes billions of dollars in U.S. patents, has held American activists and entrepreneurs hostage, and vetoes most United Nations initiatives. 2004 Summer Olympics , 2008 Summer Olympics , 2012 Summer Olympics 1444 Words | 4 Pages. ?Throughout America’s history, few things have left the nation in essay such controversial turmoil as the Vietnam War. With an asking question in essay American death toll of almost . 60,000 troops, the Vietnam War has gone down in infamy as one of the most tremendous struggles Americans have faced both overseas and on the home front. Essay Help? Because of the tumultuous controversies caused by the war, Americans split into two social factions – those against thesis for algernon the war and anthem essay help those who supported it. During the years of 1961-1975 - the era in.
Cold War , Gerald Ford , John F. Kennedy 884 Words | 3 Pages. Assignment No. 2: Let us try to find out the flowers for algernon correlation between ISO 9001: 2008 certification and business success. Help? Visit the web site of some . For Algernon? successful Indian Companies and find if their facilities are ISO 9001 certified. Find the proportion of anthem essay, companies that are ISO Certified and highly successful. Draw your conclusions. GROUP A - PRESENTORS NAME : REEMA SAXENA: 11PT-027 SUDERSHAN POL: 11PT-040 PT11-14@imt: Group-A About ISO Certification ISO (International Organization for Standardization). Better , International Organization for Standardization , ISO 9000 1284 Words | 5 Pages. recession. Inflation is the general rise in in striped essay questions prices of goods and services over essay, a period of time. Inflation can happen for reasons such as higher energy and . production costs and that includes governmental debt. Great Recession of 2008 Introduction The U.S.
2008 recession was felt in nearly every country’s economy worldwide. As inflation increased and various other factors began to fail the United States economic system a global recession began to take place. The U.S. began to face hardships. Business cycle , Economics , Great Depression 2118 Words | 7 Pages. Democracy on a Leash (Wethersfield DBQ) Connecticut. Essay Questions? Above observation could not be brushed off as the comments from an anthem Anglican clergyman, as the laws of 1770 clearly spell these. Most Essay? In essence, the . religious freedom was severely curtailed from 1750-1780. Source: ( DBQ ) http://teachers.dphs.org/ Congregational church , Connecticut , Connecticut General Assembly 919 Words | 3 Pages. APUSH DBQ As World War II was coming to an end during 1945, the creation of one of the essay most destructive weapons known to thesis, . humanity occurred within the United States. This weapon, known as “the atomic bomb,” was used on the two Japanese cities: Hiroshima and Nagasaki, resulting in a death toll unprecedented by essay help, any military weapon used before and an immediate, unconditional surrender. Macbeth Sleepwalking Essay? Some historians believe President Truman decided to drop the anthem essay atomic bomb in order to intimidate the Soviet Union whereas.
Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki , Cold War , Franklin D. Roosevelt 949 Words | 3 Pages. ?Caleb Aleshire Mr. Miller APUSH February 2, 2015 Native Americans DBQ (1877-1900) In the late 1800s, Americans were continuing . to expand Westward as they “worried that the Northeast was overpopulated and flowers that, as a result, the country would face the same problems as Europe—class conflict, poverty, and urban ills” (Document I). Anthem Essay? From 1850 to 1890, the Native lands ceded went from Midwest America to the Pacific Coast (Document A). This presented a similar problem that they had faced in the past with. Dawes Act , Hawaii , Indigenous peoples of the Americas 998 Words | 4 Pages. Miki Zaganjor APUSH (Matson) 9/19/13 Era of Good Feelings: DBQ The Era of Good Feelings: America's Glory Years In an question . aftermath of the Napoleonic Wars, feuding powers across the nation, and a general chaos, the Era of Good Feelings marked a period in the political history of the United States that reflected a sense of anthem, national purpose and a desire for unity among Americans.
In the era, the collapse and downfall of the club Federalist party was seen, thus an anthem help end to the bitter partisan disputes. Democratic-Republican Party , Era of Good Feelings , Henry Clay 896 Words | 3 Pages. Apple suffered loss of revenue and themes essays loss of anthem, market share for over thirteen years. Second, Apple is losing its customer loyalty and the specificity of its . Question? products by installing more and more Microsoft and Intel software onto its products. Third, in anthem essay 2008 , as more than a quarter of its iPhones fell into “gray market,” Apple suffered a certain amount of sleepwalking essay, loss of service share revenue.
At last, more and more smartphones from Apple competitors are entering the market, which brings iPhone and iPod a lot. Apple Inc. , Apple Store , IPhone 1152 Words | 5 Pages.
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Anthem essay 2016
oedipus theme essay We exist/experience in a holographic universe replete with creation myths about gods/aliens who came from the sky to create the anthem human experience/experiment for any number of reasons - saying they would return return at the end of the for argumentative essays illusion of time. Creation myths following the same algorithm in each civilization - good vs. evil. Mythology can refer to the collected myths of a group of peopletheir collection of stories they tell to help, explain nature, history, and the boy in striped questions customs - or to the study of such myths. Anthem? As a collection of explanatory stories, mythology is a vital feature of every culture. Many sources for myths have been proposed, ranging from personification of nature or personification of natural phenomena, to asking, truthful or hyperbolic accounts of help, historical events to explanations of existing rituals.
Although the lady essay term is complicated by its implicit condescension, mythologizing is not just an ancient or primitive practice, as shown by contemporary mythopoeia such as urban legends and the expansive fictional mythoi created by fantasy novels and comics. A culture's collective mythology helps convey belonging, shared and religious experiences, behavioral models, and moral and practical lessons. The study of myth dates back to ancient history. Rival classes of the Greek myths by Euhemerus, Plato, and Sallustius were developed by the Neoplatonists and later revived by essay, Renaissance mythographers. The nineteenth-century comparative mythology reinterpreted myth as a primitive and failed counterpart of science (E. Themes For Argumentative Essays? B. Tylor), a disease of anthem essay, language (Max Muller), or a misinterpretation of magical ritual (James Frazer). Recent approaches have rejected conflict between the value of myth and rational thought, often viewing myths as expressions to understand general psychological, cultural, or societal truths, rather than as inaccurate historical accounts.
Read more. Relation of Myths to Other Narrative Forms. In Western culture there are a number of literary or narrative genres that scholars have related in macbeth essay different ways to myths. Examples are fables, fairy tales, folktales, sagas, epics, legends, and etiologic tales (which refer to causes or explain why a thing is the way it is). Another form of tale, the parable, differs from myth in anthem its purpose and character. Even in the West, however, there is no agreed definition of any of these genres, and some scholars question whether multiplying categories of the boy essay questions, narrative is helpful at all, as opposed to working with a very general concept such as the anthem essay traditional tale. Non-Western cultures apply classifications that are different both from the macbeth sleepwalking Western categories and from one another.
Most, however, make a basic distinction between true and fictitious narratives, with true ones corresponding to what in the West would be called myths. If it is accepted that the category of traditional tale should be subdivided, one way of doing so is to anthem essay, regard the various subdivisions as comparable to bands of color in a spectrum. Flowers For Algernon? Within this figurative spectrum, there will be similarities and analogies between myth and folktale or between myth and legend or between fairy tale and folktale. In the section that follows, it is assumed that useful distinctions can be drawn between different categories. It should, however, be remembered throughout that these classifications are far from rigid and that, in many cases, a given tale might be plausibly assigned to more than one category. As a literary device, an allegory in its most general sense is an essay, extended metaphor. Allegory has been used widely throughout history in all forms of art, largely because it can readily illustrate complex ideas and concepts in ways that are comprehensible or striking to its viewers, readers, or listeners. Writers or speakers typically use allegories as literary devices or as rhetorical devices that convey hidden meanings through symbolic figures, actions, imagery, and/or events, which together create the moral, spiritual, or political meaning the author wishes to convey. One of the best-known examples of allegory, Plato's Allegory of the Cave, forms a part of flowers, his larger work The Republic. In this allegory, Plato describes a group of people who have lived chained in a cave all of their lives, facing a blank wall (514ab). The people watch shadows projected on the wall by things passing in front of essay, a fire behind them and begin to ascribe forms to these shadows, using language to identify their world (514c515a). According to the allegory, the shadows are as close as the prisoners get to viewing reality, until one of cotton club essays, them finds his way into the outside world where he sees the essay help actual objects that produced the shadows.
He tries to tell the people in the cave of his discovery, but they do not believe him and vehemently resist his efforts to free them so they can see for question, themselves (516e518a). Anthem Essay? This allegory is, on a basic level, about a philosopher who upon finding greater knowledge outside the cave of human understanding, seeks to i like, share it as is his duty, and the foolishness of those who would ignore him because they think themselves educated enough. The word fable derives from the Latin word fabula , which originally meant about the same as the Greek mythos; like mythos, it came to mean a fictitious or untrue story. Myths, in contrast, are not presented as fictitious or untrue. Fables, like some myths, feature personified animals or natural objects as characters. Unlike myths, however, fables almost always end with an explicit moral message, and this highlights the characteristic feature of fables--namely, that they are instructive tales that teach morals about human social behavior. Myths, by contrast, tend to lack this directly didactic aspect, and the sacred narratives that they embody are often hard to translate into direct prescriptions for action in anthem essay everyday human terms. Another difference between fables and myths relates to a feature of the narratives that they present.
The context of a typical fable will be unspecific as to time and space; e.g., A fox and a goose met at a pool. Asking Question In Essay? A typical myth, on the other hand, will be likely to essay, identify by name the god or hero concerned in a given exploit and to specify details of geography and genealogy; e.g., Oedipus was the son of Laius, the king of Thebes. The term fairy tale, if taken literally, should refer only to lady sleepwalking, stories about help, fairies, a class of supernatural and sometimes malevolent beings--often believed to be of diminutive size -- who were thought by people in medieval and post medieval Europe to inhabit a kingdom of their own; a literary expression of this belief can be found in the boy Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream. The term fairy tale, however, is normally used to refer to a much wider class of narrative, namely stories (directed above all at an audience of children) about an individual, almost always young, who confronts strange or magical events: examples are Jack and the Beanstalk, Cinderella, and anthem essay help Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. The modern concept of the i like most essay fairy tale seems not to be found earlier than the 18th century in Europe, but the narratives themselves have earlier analogues much farther afield, notably in anthem essay the Indian Katha-saritsagara (The Ocean of Story) and in The Thousand and One Nights. Like myths, fairy tales present extraordinary beings and events. Club Harlem Renaissance Essays? Unlike myths - but like fables - fairy tales tend to be placed in a setting that is geographically and temporally vague and might begin with the words Once upon a time there was a handsome prince . A myth about essay help, a prince, by contrast, would be likely to name him and to specify his lineage, since such details might be of essays, collective importance (for example, with reference to essay, issues of the book i like quran essay, property inheritance or the help relative status of different families) to the boy pyjamas, the social group among which the myth was told.
There is much disagreement among scholars as to how to define the essay help folktale; consequently, there is disagreement about the relation between folktale and thesis for algernon myth. One view of the essay help problem is that of the American folklorist Stith Thompson, who regarded myths as one type of folktale; according to this approach, the particular characteristic of myth is that its narratives deal with sacred events that happened in the boy pyjamas essay questions the beginning. Other scholars either consider folktale a subdivision of myth or regard the two categories as distinct but overlapping. The latter view is taken by anthem help, the British classicist Geoffrey S. Kirk, who in Myth: Its Meaning and Functions in Ancient and Other Cultures (1970) uses the term myth to denote stories with an underlying purpose beyond that of simple story-telling and the term folktale to denote stories that reflect simple social situations and play on ordinary fears and desires. Examples of the boy in striped, folktale motifs are encounters between ordinary, often humble, human beings and supernatural adversaries such as witches, giants, or ogres; contests to win a bride; and attempts to overcome a wicked stepmother or jealous sisters. But these typical folktale themes occur also in stories normally classified as myths, and there must always be a strong element of arbitrariness in assigning a motif to essay, a particular category.
A different and important aspect of the macbeth essay problem of essay help, defining a folktale relates to the historical origin of the concept. As with the most essay notion of folklore, the notion of folktale has its roots in the late 18th century. From that period until the middle of the 19th century, many European thinkers of a nationalist persuasion argued that stories told by ordinary people constituted a continuous tradition reaching back into anthem, the nation's past. Thus, stories such as the Marchen (Tales) collected by the Grimm brothers in Germany are folktales because they were told by the people rather than by an aristocratic elite. This definition of folktale introduces a new criterion for distinguishing between myth and folktale--namely, what class of asking question in essay, person tells the story--but it by no means removes all the problems of classification. Anthem Essay? Just as the distinction between folk and aristocracy cannot be transferred from medieval Europe to tribal Africa or classical Greece without risk of distortion, so the importing of a distinction between myth and essays folktale on the later European model is extremely problematic. Sagas and Epics. The word saga is help, often used in pyjamas questions a generalized and loose way to refer to anthem essay help, any extended narrative re-creation of historical events.
A distinction is thus sometimes drawn between myths (set in lady macbeth sleepwalking a semi divine world) and sagas (more realistic and more firmly grounded in a specific historical setting). This rather vague use of saga is best avoided, however, since the anthem help word can more usefully retain the precise connotation of for argumentative essays, its original context. The word saga is Old Norse and means what is essay, said. The sagas are a group of medieval Icelandic prose narratives; the principal sagas date from the 13th century and question in essay relate the deeds of Icelandic heroes who lived during the 10th and 11th centuries. If the word saga is restricted to essay, this Icelandic context, at least one of the themes possible terminological confusions over words for traditional tales is anthem help, avoided. While saga in its original sense is a narrative type confined to a particular time and place, epics are found worldwide. Examples can be found in pyjamas the ancient world (the Iliad and Odyssey of anthem essay, Homer), in medieval Europe (the Nibelungenlied), and in modern times (the Serbo-Croatian epic poetry recorded in the 1930s). Among the lady macbeth sleepwalking many non-European examples are the Indian Mahabharata and the Tibetan Gesar epic. Epic is similar to saga in that both narrative forms look back to an age of heroic endeavor, but it differs from saga in that epics are almost always composed in poetry (with a few exceptions such as Kazak epic and the Turkish Book of Dede Korkut). The relation between epic and myth is not easy to pin down, but it is in general true that epics characteristically incorporate mythical events and persons. An example is the anthem essay ancient Mesopotamian epic of Gilgamesh, which includes, among many mythical episodes, an account of the meeting between the themes hero Gilgamesh and Utnapishtim, the only man to have attained immortality and sole survivor (with his wife) of the essay help flood sent by the gods.
Myth is thus a prime source of the renaissance essays material on which epic draws. In common usage the word legend usually characterizes a traditional tale thought to have a historical basis, as in the legends of King Arthur or Robin Hood. In this view, a distinction may be drawn between myth (which refers to the supernatural and anthem the sacred) and legend (which is grounded in historical fact). Thus, some writers on the Iliad would distinguish between the legendary aspects (e.g., heroes performing actions possible for ordinary humans) and themes for argumentative essays the mythical aspects (e.g., episodes involving the gods). But the distinction between myth and legend must be used with care. In particular, because of the assumed link between legend and historical fact, there may be a tendency to refer to narratives that correspond to one's own beliefs as legends, while exactly comparable stories from other traditions may be classified as myths; hence a Christian might refer to help, stories about the miraculous deeds of a saint as legends, while similar stories about asking in essay, a pagan healer might be called myths. As in other cases, it must be remembered that the boundaries between terms for traditional narratives are fluid, and that different writers employ them in quite different ways. Functionalism is primarily associated with the anthropologists Bronislaw Malinowski and A.R. Radcliffe-Brown, however. Both ask not what the origin of any given social behavior may be but how it contributes to anthem essay, maintaining the system of which it is a part. In this view, in all types of lady sleepwalking, society, every aspect of life--every custom, belief, or idea--makes its own special contribution to the continued effective working of the anthem whole society.
Functionalism has had a wide appeal to anthropologists in Britain and the United States, especially as an interpretation of essays, myth as integrated with other aspects of society and as supporting existing social relationships. The term myth is not normally applied to narratives that have as their explicit purpose the illustration of a doctrine or standard of conduct. Instead, the term parable, or illustrative tale, is used. Familiar examples of such narratives are the parables of the New Testament. Parables have a considerable role also in Sufism (Islamic mysticism), rabbinic (Jewish biblical interpretive) literature, Hasidism (Jewish pietism), and anthem help Zen Buddhism. That parables are essentially non-mythological is clear because the point made by the parable is known or supposed to be known from another source. Parables have a more subservient function than myths. They may clarify something to an individual or a group but do not take on cotton club harlem renaissance essays the revelatory character of myth.
Etiologic tales are very close to myth, and some scholars regard them as a particular type of essay, myth rather than as a separate category. In modern usage the the book i like quran term etiology is used to refer to the description or assignment of causes (Greek aitia). Accordingly, an anthem essay help, etiologic tale explains the origin of a custom, state of affairs, or natural feature in the human or divine world. Many tales explain the origin of thesis, a particular rock or mountain. Others explain iconographic features, such as the anthem help Hindu narrative ascribing the blue neck of the god Siva to a poison he drank in most primordial times.
The etiologic theme often seems to be added to a mythical narrative as an afterthought. In other words, the etiology is not the distinctive characteristic of myth. Approaches to the Study of Myth and Mythology. The importance of studying myth to provide a key to a human society is a matter of historical record. In the middle of the 19th century, for instance, a newly appointed British governor of New Zealand, Sir George Grey, was confronted by the problem of how to come to terms with the anthem essay help Maori, who were hostile to the British. He learned their language, but that proved insufficient for an understanding of the way in which they reasoned and argued. In order to be able to conduct negotiations satisfactorily, he found it necessary to study the the boy in striped essay Maori's mythology, to which they made frequent reference.
Other government officials and Christian missionaries of the 19th and 20th centuries made similar efforts to understand the essay help mythologies of nations or tribes so as to facilitate communication. The Boy In Striped Essay? Such studies were more than a means to an end, whether efficient administration or conversion; they amounted to the discovery that myths present a model or charter for man's behavior and anthem essay help that the world of myth provides guidance for crucial elements in human existence--war and in striped pyjamas essay peace, life and death, truth and falsehood, good and evil. Anthem Essay? In addition to such practically motivated attempts to understand myth, theorists and scholars from many disciplines have interested themselves in the study of the subject. A close study of themes, myth has developed in the West, especially since the 18th century. Much of its material has come from the anthem help study of the Greek and Roman classics, from which it has also derived some of its methods of interpretation. The growth of philosophy in club ancient Greece furthered allegorical interpretations of myth--i.e., finding other or supposedly deeper meanings hidden below the surface of mythical texts. Such meanings were usually seen as involving natural phenomena or human values. Related to anthem, this was a tendency toward rationalism, especially when those who studied myths employed false etymologies. Rationalism in this context connotes the scrutiny of myths in asking such a way as to make sense of the statements contained in them without taking literally their references to gods, monsters, or the supernatural.
Thus, the ancient writer Palaiphatos interpreted the story of Europa (carried off to Crete on the back of a handsome bull, which was actually Zeus in disguise) as that of a woman abducted by a Cretan called Tauros, the Greek word for bull; and Skylla, the bestial and cannibalistic creature who attacked Odysseus' ship according to Homer's Odyssey, was by the same process of rationalizing interpreted as simply the anthem name of a pirate ship. Of special and long-lasting influence in the history of the interpretation of myth was Euhemerism (named after Euhemerus, a Greek writer who flourished about 300 BC), according to which certain gods were originally great people venerated because of their benefactions to mankind. The early Church Fathers adopted an for argumentative essays, attitude of modified Euhemerism, according to which classical mythology was to be explained in terms of mere men who had been raised to superhuman, demonic status because of their deeds. By this means, Christians were able to incorporate myths from the culturally authoritative pagan past into a Christian framework while defusing their religious significance--the gods became ordinary humans. The Middle Ages did not develop new theoretical perspectives on myth, nor, despite some elaborate works of historical and etymological erudition, did the Renaissance. In both periods, interpretations in terms of allegory and Euhemerism tended to anthem essay, predominate. In early 18th-century Italy, Giambattista Vico, a thinker now considered the forerunner of essay, all writers on ethnology, or the study of culture in human societies, built on traditional scholarship--especially in law and philosophy--to make the first clear case for the role of man's creative imagination in the formation of distinct myths at successive cultural stages. His work, which was most notably expressed in his Scienza Nuova (1725; The New Science of Giambattista Vico ), had no influence in his own century. Instead, the notion that pagan myths were distortions of the biblical revelation (first expressed in the Renaissance) continued to anthem essay, find favor.
Nevertheless, Enlightenment philosophy, reports from lady macbeth sleepwalking voyages of discovery, and missionary reports (especially the Jesuits' accounts of North American Indians) contributed to scholarship and fostered greater objectivity. Bernhard Le Bovier de Fontenelle, a French scholar, compared Greek and anthem essay American Indian myths and suggested that there was a universal human predisposition toward mythology. In De l'origine des fables (1724; On the Origin of Fables) he attributed the absurdities (as he saw them) of myths to the fact that the stories grew up among an earlier, more primitive human society. About 1800 the Romantics' growing fascination with language, the postulation of an cotton club, Indo-European language family, the essay study of Sanskrit, and club renaissance essays the growth of help, comparative studies, especially in asking question history and philology, were all part of a trend that included the study of myth. The relevance of anthem help, Indo-European studies to an understanding of Greek and Roman mythology was carried to an extreme in the work of Friedrich Max Muller, a German Orientalist who moved to Britain and undertook important research on comparative linguistics. In his view, expressed in such works as Comparative Mythology (1856), the mythology of the original Indo-European peoples had consisted of allegorical stories about the cotton club harlem workings of nature, in particular such features as the sky, the Sun, and the dawn. In the course of time, though, these original meanings had been lost (through, in Muller's notorious phrasing, a disease of anthem help, language), so that the myths no longer told in flowers for algernon a rationally intelligible way of phenomena in the natural world but instead appeared to describe the irrational activities of gods, heroes, nymphs, and essay others.
For instance, one Greek myth related the pursuit of the themes for argumentative essays nymph Daphne by the god Phoebus Apollo. Since--in Muller's interpretation of the essay help evidence of comparative linguistics--Daphne originally meant dawn, and Phoibos meant morning sun, the original story was rationally intelligible as the in striped essay dawn is put to flight by the morning sun. One of the problems with this view is, of course, that it fails to essay help, account for the fact that the Greeks continued to tell this and similar stories long after their supposed meanings had been forgotten; and they did so, moreover, in the manifest belief that the stories referred, not to nature, but precisely to gods, heroes, and other mythical beings. Interest in myth was greatly stimulated in Germany by Friedrich von Schelling's philosophy of mythology, which argued that myth was a form of expression, characteristic of a particular stage in human development, through which men imagine the Absolute (for Schelling an all-embracing unity in which all differences are reconciled). Scholarly interest in myth has continued into the 20th century. Many scholars have adopted a psychological approach because of interest aroused by the theories of Sigmund Freud. Cotton Renaissance Essays? Subsequently, new approaches in sociology and anthropology have continued to encourage the study of myth.
In the late 18th century artists and intellectuals came increasingly to emphasize the role of the emotions in human life and, correspondingly, to play down the importance of reason (which had been regarded as supremely important by essay help, thinkers of the Enlightenment). Those involved in the new movement were known as Romantics. The Romantic movement had profound implications for the study of cotton renaissance, myth. Myths--both the stories from Greek and Roman antiquity and contemporary folktales--were regarded by anthem essay, the Romantics as repositories of experience far more vital and powerful than those obtainable from what was felt to be the artificial art and poetry of the aristocratic civilization of contemporary Europe. This new attitude is illustrated in a work of the German critic and lady essay philosopher Johann Gottfried von Herder entitled Auszug aus einem Briefwechsel uber Ossian und die Lieder alter Volker (1773; Extract from a Correspondence on anthem essay help Ossian and the Songs of Ancient Peoples). Ossian is the name of an Irish warrior-poet whose Gaelic songs were supposedly translated and presented to lady macbeth essay, the world by James Macpherson in the 1760s. Although largely the work of Macpherson himself, these songs made a colossal impact when they were published.
Herder believed that the more savage, that is, the more alive and freedom-loving a people (ein Volk) was, the essay help more alive and free its songs would be. In opposition to the culture of the educated, Herder exalted the essays Kultur des Volkes (culture of the people). In 1769 Herder abandoned his job as a schoolteacher and took a boat from Riga, on the Baltic, to Nantes, on the Atlantic coast of France. In Journal meiner Reise im Jahre 1769 (1769; Journal of My Travels in the Year 1769), a description of the experience, he wrote: In everything [on board ship] there is experience to illuminate the original era of the myths. Then [i.e., in antiquity] every man, ignorant of nature, listened for signs and had to listen for them. Then, Jupiter's lightning was terrifying--as indeed it is [i.e., now] on the Ocean. There are a thousand new and more natural explanations of mythology if one reads, say, Orpheus, Homer, Pindar on essay board ship. In other words, for Herder ancient myths were the natural expressions of the concerns that would have confronted the ancients; and harlem essays those concerns were the very ones that, according to Herder, still confronted the Volk--e.g., ordinary sailors--in Herder's own day.
Since the help Romantic movement, all study of myth has been comparative, although comparative attempts were made earlier. The prevalence of the comparative approach has meant that since the 19th century even the most specialized studies have made generalizations about more than one tradition or at the very least have had to cotton club harlem essays, take comparative works by others into account. Indeed, for essay help, there to be any philosophical inquiry into the nature and function of myth at all, there must exist a body of data about myths across a range of asking, societies. Essay Help? Such data would not exist without a comparative approach. The classic folklore approach is that of Wilhelm Mannhardt, a German scholar, who attempted to question, collect data on the lower mythology, which he considered to be more or less homogeneous in ancient and popular peasant traditions and anthem help basic to all formation of themes essays, myth. Mannhardt saw sufficient analogies and similarities between the ancient and modern data to permit use of the essay latter in interpreting the former. Like Herder, he saw the source of mythology in the traditions passed on themes among the Volk. He collected information not only about popular stories but also about popular customs. He interpreted ancient Greek rituals by anthem essay, relating them to in striped questions, customs of the agricultural peoples of northern Europe, proposing this link in his book Antike Wald- und Feldkulte (1877; Ancient Wood and Field Cults). Other people who examined myth from the folklore standpoint included Sir James Frazer, the British anthropologist, the brothers Grimm (Jacob, who influenced Mannhardt, and Wilhelm), who are well-known for their collections of folklore, and Stith Thompson, who is essay help, notable for his classification of folk literature, particularly his massive Motif-Index of Folk-Literature (1955). The Grimms shared Herder's passion for the poetry and stories of the Volk.
Their importance stems in part from the academic diligence and meticulousness that they brought to the recording and study of thesis, popular tradition. In addition to their collection of Marchen (Tales), they published volumes of Deutsche Sagen (German Legends). These were tales that purported to record actual events and that were ostensibly set in a specific place and period, as opposed to anthem essay, the once-upon-a-time-in-the-forest setting characteristic of the Marchen. Collecting and classifying mythological themes have remained the principal activities of the themes essays folklore approach. One of the leading exponents of the functionalist approach to anthem essay, myth was the French sociologist Marcel Mauss, who used the phrase total social facts in question in essay reference to religious symbols and myths and their irreducibility in anthem essay terms of other functions. In his Essai sur le don (1925; The Gift), Mauss referred to a system of gift giving to be found in traditional, preindustrial societies. Observing that there was a mass of complex data on the subject, Mauss continued: in these early societies, social phenomena are not discrete; each phenomenon contains all the themes essays threads of which the help social fabric is composed. In these total social phenomena, as we propose to call them, all kinds of institutions find simultaneous expression: religious, legal, moral, and economic. In his introduction to the English edition Edward Evans-Pritchard commented on that passage: Total is the key word of the most Essay. The exchanges of archaic societies which he examines are total social movements or activities.
They are at the same time economic, juridical, moral, aesthetic, religious, mythological phenomena. Their meaning can therefore only be grasped if they are viewed as a complex concrete reality. Functionalism is primarily associated with the anthropologists Bronislaw Malinowski and essay help A.R. Macbeth Essay? Radcliffe-Brown, however. Both ask not what the origin of any given social behavior may be but how it contributes to maintaining the system of anthem, which it is a part. In this view, in all types of most quran, society, every aspect of life--every custom, belief, or idea--makes its own special contribution to the continued effective working of the essay help whole society. Functionalism has had a wide appeal to anthropologists in Britain and the book i like most the United States, especially as an interpretation of myth as integrated with other aspects of society and as supporting existing social relationships.
Structuralist approaches to essay help, myth are based on the analogy of myth to language. Just as a language is composed of significant oppositions (e.g., between phonemes, the constituent sounds of the language), so myths are formed out of significant oppositions between certain terms and categories. Structuralist analysis aims at uncovering what it sees as the logic of myth. It is argued that supposedly primitive thought is logically consistent but that the terms of this logic are not those with which modern Western culture is familiar. Instead they are terms related to items of the everyday world in which the primitive culture exists. This logic is usually based on empirical categories (e.g., raw/cooked, upstream/downstream, bush/village) or empirical objects (e.g., buffalo, river, gold, eagle). Some structuralists, such as the French anthropologist Claude Levi-Strauss, have emphasized the presence of the same logical patterns in myths throughout the world. In earlier anthropology, primitive mentality was characterized by the book i like essay, the inability to make distinctions, by a sense of mystic participation or identity between man, his cosmos, and help all other beings. Pyjamas Essay? Beginning with complex kinship systems and later exploring other taxonomies, structuralists argue to the opposite conclusion: the supposedly primitive man is, if anything, obsessed with the making of distinctions; his taxonomies reveal a complexity and sophistication that rival those of modern man. In contrast to the structuralists' search for the underlying structure of myths, the 20th-century Russian folklorist Vladimir Propp investigated folktales by dividing the surface of their narratives into a number of basic elements. These elements correspond to different types of action that, in Propp's analysis, always occur in the same sequence.
Examples of the types of action isolated by Propp are An interdiction is to the hero; The interdiction is violated; The false hero or villain is exposed; and anthem essay help The hero is married and ascends the throne. An important development of Propp's approach was made in the boy in striped pyjamas questions the late 20th century by the German historian of religion Walter Burkert. Burkert detected certain recurrent patterns in the actions described in Greek myths, and he related these patterns (and their counterparts in essay Greek ritual) to basic biologic or cultural programs of action. An example of this relation is given in lady sleepwalking Burkert's Structure and History in Greek Mythology and Ritual (1979). Burkert shows how certain Greek myths have a recurring pattern that he calls the anthem girl's tragedy. Most? According to this pattern, a girl first leaves home; after a period of seclusion, she is raped by a god; there follows a time of anthem help, tribulation, during which she is threatened by themes essays, parents or relatives; eventually, having given birth to a baby boy, the girl is rescued, and the boy's glorious future is assured. The reason for the frequency and persistence of this pattern is, in Burkert's view, the anthem essay fact that it reflects a basic biologic sequence or program of action; puberty, defloration, pregnancy, delivery. Another pattern Burkert explains in a similar way is found in flowers for algernon myths about the driving out anthem, of the scapegoat. This pattern, Burkert argues, stems from a real situation that must often have occurred in early human or primate history; a group of men, or a group of apes, when pursued by carnivores, were able to save themselves through the sacrifice of one member of the group.
The persistence of these patterns through time is explained, according to Burkert, by the fact that they are grounded in asking question basic human needs--above all, the anthem help need to survive. The most obvious function of themes for argumentative essays, myths is the explanation of facts, whether natural or cultural. One North American Indian (Abnaki [Wabanaki]) myth, for example, explains the origin of corn (maize): a lonely man meets a beautiful woman with long, fair hair; she promises to anthem help, remain with him if he follows her instructions; she tells him in detail how to make a fire and, after he has done so, she orders him to in essay, drag her over anthem the burned ground; as a result of these actions, he will see her silken hair (viz., the the boy in striped questions cornstalk) reappear, and anthem essay help thereafter he will have corn seeds for macbeth, his use. Henceforth, whenever Abnaki Indians see corn (the woman's hair), they know that she remembers them. Obviously, a myth such as this one functions as an explanation, but the narrative form distinguishes it from anthem essay a straightforward answer to essays, an intellectual question about causes. The function of explanation and anthem help the narrative form go together, since the imaginative power of the myth lends credibility to the explanation and macbeth sleepwalking crystallizes it into a memorable and anthem essay enduring form.
Hence myths play an i like most quran essay, important part in many traditional systems of anthem help, education. Many myths explain ritual and cultic customs. According to myths from the island of Ceram (in Indonesia), in the beginning life was not complete, or not yet human: vegetation and animals did not exist, and there was neither death nor sexuality. In a mysterious manner Hainuwele, a girl with extraordinary gift-bestowing powers, appeared. The people killed her at the end of their great annual celebration, and her dismembered body was planted in the earth. Among the asking question in essay species that sprang up after this act of anthem help, planting were tubers--the staple diet of the people telling the myth.
With a certain circularity frequent in mythology, the myth validates the very cultic celebration mentioned in the myth. The cult can be understood as a commemoration of those first events. Macbeth Sleepwalking? Hence, the anthem essay help myth can be said to i like most essay, validate life itself together with the help cultic celebration. Comparable myths are told in a number of macbeth sleepwalking, societies where the main means of food production is the cultivation of root crops; the myths reflect the fact that tubers must be cut up and buried in the earth for propagation to take place. Ritual sacrifices are typical of traditional peasant cultures. In most cases such customs are related to help, mythical events. Among important themes are the necessity of death (e.g., the grain dies and is buried, only to yield a subsequent harvest), a society's cyclic renewal of itself (e.g., New Year's celebrations), and the significance of women and sexuality. New Year's celebrations, often accompanied by a temporary abandonment of all rules, may be related to or justified by mythical themes concerning a return to chaos and a return of the dead. In every mythological tradition one myth or cluster of myths tends to be central.
The subject of the central mythology is often cosmogony (origin of the cosmos). In many of those ceremonies that each society has developed as a symbol of what is necessary to its well-being, references are made to the beginning of the asking question world. Examples include the enthronements of kings, which in some traditions (as in anthem essay help Fiji or ancient India) are associated with a creation or re-creation of the world. Analogously, in ancient Mesopotamia the for algernon creation epic Enuma elish, which was read each New Year at Babylon, celebrated the progress of the cosmos from anthem initial anarchy to for argumentative, government by the kingship of Marduk; hence the authority of earthly rulers, and of earthly monarchy in general, was implicitly supported and justified. Ruling families in ancient civilizations frequently justified their position by invoking myths--for example, that they had divine origins. Examples are known from Imperial China, pharaonic Egypt, the Hittite Empire, Polynesia, the Inca Empire, and India. Elites have also based their claims to help, privilege on myths.
The French historian of ancient religion Georges Dum*zil was the pioneer in suggesting that the for argumentative essays priestly, warrior, and producing classes in ancient Indo-European societies regarded themselves as having been ordained to particular tasks by virtue of their mythological origins. And in every known cultural tradition there exists some mythological foundation that is referred to when defending marriage and funerary customs. Inasmuch as myths deal with the origin of the world, the end of the world, or a paradisiacal state, they are capable of describing what people can never see for themselves however rational and observant they are. Anthem Essay Help? It may be that the educational value of myths is even more bound up with the descriptions they provide than with the macbeth essay explanations. In traditional, preindustrial societies myths form perhaps the most important available model of anthem, instruction, since no separate philosophical system of inquiry exists. Healing, Renewal, and the boy in striped pyjamas essay Inspiration. Creation myths play a significant role in healing the sick; they are recited (e.g., among the essay help Navajo Indians of North America) when an individual's world--that is to say, his life--is in jeopardy. Thus, healing through recitation of a cosmogony is essays, one example of the use of myth as a magical incantation. Another example is the case of Icelandic poets, who, in anthem help singing of the the book i like most quran episode in help old Norse mythology in flowers which the anthem essay god Odin wins for gods and men the mead of song (a drink containing the power of poetic inspiration), can be said to be celebrating the origins of their own art and hence renewing it. The poetic aspect of myths in archaic and primitive traditions is considerable.
Societies in which artistic endeavor is not yet specialized tend to rely on mythical themes and images as a source of in essay, all self-expression. Mythology has also exerted an aesthetic influence in anthem more modern societies. An example is the prevalence of themes from Greek and Roman classical mythology in Western painting, sculpture, and literature. Myth in Culture. Myth and Psychology.
One of the most celebrated writers about myth from a psychological standpoint was Sigmund Freud. In his Die Traumdeutung (1899; The Interpretation of Dreams) he posited a phenomenon called the Oedipus complex, that is, the male child's repressed desire for his mother and a corresponding wish to the boy essay questions, supplant his father. (The equivalent for girls was the Electra complex.) According to Freud, this phenomenon was detectable in essay help dreams and myths, fairy tales, folktales--even jokes. Later, in Totem und Tabu (1913; Totem and Taboo ), Freud suggested that myth was the distorted wish-dreams of entire peoples. More than that, however, he saw the Oedipus complex as a memory of a real episode that had occurred in what he termed the primal horde, when sons oppressed by their father had revolted, had driven out or killed him, and had taken his wives for themselves. That subsequent generations refrained from doing so was, Freud suggested, due to a collective bad conscience.
The relevance of Freud's investigations to the study of myth lies in his view that the formation of the boy in striped pyjamas questions, mythic concepts does not depend on cultural history. Instead, Freud's analysis of the psyche posited an independent, trans-historical mechanism, based on essay help a highly personal biologic conception of man. His anthropological theories have since been refuted (e.g., totemic [symbolic animal] sacrifice as the earliest ritual custom, which he related to the first parricide), but his analysis is still regarded with interest by some reputable social scientists. Criticism, however, has been leveled against sleepwalking essay, the explanation of myths in terms of only anthem, one theme and in terms of the repression of conscious ideas. Another theorist preoccupied with psychological aspects of myth was the Swiss psychoanalyst Carl Jung, who, like Freud, was stimulated by a theory that no longer has much support--i.e., the sleepwalking essay theory of anthem essay help, Lucien Levy-Bruhl, a French philosopher, associating myth with prelogical mentality. This, according to cotton club harlem, L*vy-Bruhl, was a type of thought that had been common to essay, archaic mankind, that was still common to primitives, and in which people supposedly experienced some form of mystical participation with the objects of question in essay, their thought, rather than a separation of subject and object. Jung's theory of the collective unconscious, which bears a certain resemblance to Levy-Bruhl's theory, enabled him to regard the foundation of mythical images as positive and help creative, in club essays contrast with Freud's more negative view of mythology. Jung evolved a theory of archetypes. Broadly similar images and symbols occur in myths, fairy tales, and dreams because the human psyche has an inbuilt tendency to dwell on certain inherited motifs (archetypes), the basic pattern of which persists, however much details may vary.
But critics of Jung have hesitated to accept his theory of anthem help, archetypes as an account of mythology. Among objections raised, two may be mentioned. First, the the boy in striped archetypal symbols identified by Jung are static, representing personal types that conflate aspects of the personality: they do not help to anthem, illuminate--in the way that the analyses of Propp and Burkert do--the patterns of action that myths narrate. Second, Jungian analysis is essentially aimed at relating myth to the individual psyche, whereas myth is above all a social phenomenon, embedded in society and requiring explanation with reference to social structures and social functions. Myth and Science. Attention has sometimes focused on changes occurring in the way the real world is apprehended by different peoples and how these changes in reality are reflected in myths.
This reality changes continually throughout history, and these changes have especially occupied philosophers and historians of science, for a sense of reality in harlem renaissance essays a culture is basic to anthem, any scientific pursuit by that culture, beginning with the earliest philosophical inquiries into the nature of the world. Though it would perhaps be going too far to identify the images and concepts that make up a culture's scientific sense of reality with myth, parallels between science and essay myth, as well as the presence of a mythological dimension to science, are generally reckoned to exist. The function of models in anthem essay physics, biology, medicine, and other sciences resembles that of myths as paradigms, or patterns, of the human world. In medicine, for instance, the human body is sometimes likened to a machine or the human brain to a computer, and such models are easily understood. Once a model has gained acceptance, it is difficult to the book most quran, replace, and in this respect it resembles myth, while at anthem help the same time, just as in myth, there may be a great variety of thesis flowers, interpretations. In the anthem 17th century it was assumed that the cotton club renaissance universe could be explained entirely in terms of minute corpuscles, their motion and interaction, and that no entities of any other sort existed. To the extent that many models in the history of science have partaken of this somewhat absolutist character, science can be said to resemble myth. There are, however, important differences. Despite the relative infrequency with which models in science have been replaced, replacement does occur, and a strong awareness of the limitations of models has developed in modern science. In contrast, a myth is not as a rule regarded by the community in which it functions as open to replacement, although an anthem essay, outside observer might record changes and even the substitution of a new myth for an old one. Moreover, in spite of the broad cultural impact of theories and models such as those of Newton and Einstein, it is in general true to say that models in science have their principal value for the scientists concerned.
Hence, they function most strongly for the book most quran essay, a relatively small segment of society, even though, for anthem, instance, a medical theory held in academic circles in one century can filter down into folk medicine in the next. As a rule, myth has a much wider impact. Modern science did not evolve in its entirety as a rebellion against harlem essays, myth, nor at its birth did it suddenly throw off the shackles of myth. In ancient Greece the naturalists of Ionia (western Asia Minor), long regarded as the originators of science, developed views of the universe that were in fact very close to the creation myths of their time. Those who laid the foundations of modern science, such as Nicholas of anthem essay, Cusa, Johannes Kepler, Sir Isaac Newton, and Gottfried Leibniz, were absorbed by metaphysical problems of which the traditional, indeed mythological, character is evident. Among these problems were the nature of infinity and the question of the omnipotence of God. The influence of mythological views is seen in the English physician William Harvey's association of the circulation of the renaissance blood with the planetary movements and Darwin's explanation of anthem essay, woman's menstrual cycles by the tides of the in striped essay questions ocean.
Several thinkers (e.g., the theologian Paul Tillich and the philosopher Karl Jaspers) have argued convincingly for a mythological dimension to all science. Myth, in anthem help this view, is that which is taken for granted when thought begins. It is at the same time the limit reached in the course of scientific analysis, when it is found that no further progress in definition can be made after certain fundamental principles have been reached. In recent scientific researches, especially in astronomy and biology, questions of teleology (final ends) have gained in importance, as distinct from earlier concerns with questions of origin. These recent concerns stimulate discussion about the limits of what can be scientifically explained, and they reveal anew a mythological dimension to human knowledge. Myth and Religion. Ritual and themes for argumentative Other Practices. The place of myth in various religious traditions differs. The idea that the principal function of a myth is to provide a justification for a ritual was adopted without any great attempt to make a case for it. At the beginning of the 20th century many scholars thought of anthem essay, myths in their earliest forms as accounts of social customs and values. According to Sir James Frazer, myths and rituals together provided evidence for man's earliest preoccupation, namely, fertility.
Human society developed in stages--from the magical through the religious to the scientific--and myths and rituals (which survived even into the scientific stage) bore witness to archaic modes of thought that were otherwise difficult to reconstruct. As for the relationship between myth and ritual, Frazer argued that myths were intended to explain otherwise unintelligible rituals. Thus, in Adonis, Attis, Osiris (1906) he stated that the mythical story of Attis' self-castration was designed to explain the fact that the priests of Attis' cult castrated themselves at his festival. In a much more articulate way, biblical scholars stressed the necessity to look for the situation in life and custom (the Sitz im Leben) that mythical texts originally possessed. A number of themes for argumentative, scholars, mainly in Britain and the Scandinavian countries and usually referred to as the Myth and Ritual school (of which the best-known member is the British biblical scholar S.H. Hooke), have concentrated on the ritual purposes of myths. Their work has centered on the philological study of the ancient Middle East both before and since the rise of Islam and has focused almost exclusively on essay rituals connected with sacred kingship and New Year's celebrations. Of particular importance was the discovery that the creation epic Enuma elish was recited at the Babylonian New Year's festival: the myth was, it was argued, expressing in language that which the ritual was enacting through action.
Classical scholars have subsequently investigated the in striped essay relations between myth and ritual in ancient Greece. Particularly influential has been the study of help, sacrifice by Walter Burkert entitled Homo Necans: The Anthropology of Ancient Greek Sacrificial Ritual and Myth (1983). Connections between myths and cult behavior certainly exist, but there is no solid ground for the suggestion, following Frazer, that, in general, ritual came first and myth was then formulated as a subsequent explanation. If it is only the lady sleepwalking subsequent myth that has made the essay help sense of the earlier ritual explicit, the meaning of the ritual may remain a riddle. Cotton Harlem Renaissance Essays? There is in fact no unanimous opinion about which originated first. Modern scholars are inclined to turn away from the question of anthem essay help, temporal priority and to concentrate instead on the diversity of the club essays relationship between myth and ritual.
While it is clear that some myths are linked to anthem essay, rituals, so that it makes sense to say that the myth is expressing in the language of narrative that which the ritual expresses through the essay symbolism of action, in the case of other myths no such ritual exists. The content of important myths concerning the origin of the world usually reflects the dominant cultural form of a tradition. The myths of hunter-gatherer societies tell of the anthem help origin of game animals and hunting customs; agricultural civilizations tend to give weight to agricultural practices in their myths; pastoral cultures to pastoral practices; and thesis so on. Thus, many myths present models of acts and organizations central to the society's way of life and relate these to primordial times. Myths in specific traditions deal with matters such as harvest customs, initiation ceremonies, and the customs of secret societies. Religious Symbolism and Iconography. Sacred objects are found in anthem help all religious traditions, and sacred images in most. The Boy Pyjamas Essay Questions? They are the material counterparts of myth inasmuch as they represent sacred realities of figures, as myths do in narrative form.
Representing does not entail faithful copying of anthem essay, natural or human forms, and in this respect religious symbolism is again like myth in that both depict the extraordinary rather than the ordinary. Many symbolic representations have their sources in myths. Representations in human form, especially natural human form, are rare. The sculptures of divine figures in classical Greece (by sculptors such as Phidias and Praxiteles) are the pyjamas essay exception. Usually the degree of representation occurring in cult practices and the depiction of mythical themes has been considerably less humanistic. An example is the way geometric and animal figures abound in anthem the history of religions. Another example is the use of sacred masks, as in the mysteries of Dionysus, an ecstatic cult in the Aegean world of classical antiquity, and the indigenous traditions of Australia, America, prehistoric Europe, and elsewhere. The Old Testament is usually regarded as embodying much material that anthropologists would regard as containing mythical themes in just the lady macbeth essay same way as the practices of the ancient Greeks, Chinese, or Abnaki Indians are bound up with myths. Yet the essay religion of Israel was in many respects critical of myths (in the sense of noncanonical, approved narratives). Similarly, it rejected any representation of God in natural forms. Anti-mythological tendencies exist in the religions that have their roots in Israel.
The New Testament of Christianity in the book i like essay some instances derogates myths by describing them as godless and anthem silly. Islam's emphasis on the transcendence of God, as attested in the Qur'an, similarly allows little room for mythological stories. The activities of the supernatural beings known as jinn, however, are acknowledged even by official Islam, besides being prominent in macbeth essay popular belief (as in The Thousand and One Nights); and other mythological themes, for example motifs relating to the end of time (eschatology), also figure in help Islamic religion, above all in lady macbeth sleepwalking its Shi'ite form. Orthodox Shi'ite Muslims believe in the existence of 12 imams, semi divine descendants of the Prophet Muhammad through his son-in-law 'Ali. Toward the end of time, according to the beliefs of Shi'ism, the 12th imam will return to bring truth and justice to mankind.
Other traditions with sacred scriptures are more tolerant of help, myth, for example Hinduism and Buddhism. Running through certain central texts of the Hindu sacred tradition is the theme of the contrast between the One and the Many. Thus, the question in essay philosophical poem known as the Bhagavadgita contrasts the person who sees Infinity within the ordinary finite world with the person who merely sees the diversity of appearances. Yet this ascetic and abstract view by no means excludes a rich and extraordinarily diverse mythology, which is reflected in the tremendous variety of Indian religious statuary and which mirrors the anthem essay help religious complexity of Indian society. A justification for the coexistence of an ideal of unity with a pluralistic reality is found in the Rigveda, where it is written that although God is One the sages give him many names. Buddhism also finds room for exuberant mythology as well as for the plainer truths of sacred doctrine. Buddhism embraces not only the teachings of the Buddha about the pursuit of the path to Enlightenment and Nirvana but also the exotic mythical figures of Yamantaka, who wears a necklace of skulls, and the grossly fat god of thesis flowers, wealth Jambhala.
Myth and the Arts. Oral traditions and anthem help written literature. Myths in lady macbeth essay ancient civilizations are known only by virtue of the anthem help fact that they became part of a written tradition. In the case of themes for argumentative essays, Greece, virtually all myths are literature in the form in which they have survived, the oldest source being the works ascribed to the Greek poets Homer and Hesiod (usually dated, in written form, to the 8th century BC). Literary forms such as the anthem essay help epic have frequently served as vehicles for macbeth sleepwalking essay, transmitting myths inasmuch as they present an authoritative account. The Homeric epics were both an example and an exploration of heroic values, and the poems became the basis of education in classical Greece. The great epics of essay help, India (Mahabharata and the boy pyjamas Ramayana) came to function as encyclopedias of knowledge and provided models for all human existence. In principle, the sort of relationship that exists between myth and literature exists also with respect to the other arts. In the essay case of architecture and sculpture, archaeological discoveries confirm the primacy of mythical representations. Among the earliest known three-dimensional objects built by man are prehistoric megalithic and sepulchral structures.
Mythological details cannot actually be discerned, but it is generally believed that such structures express mythological concerns and that mythical images dictated the shape. An especially intriguing example is the stone circle at essays Stonehenge in southern England. Axes of this construction are aligned with significant risings and settings of the Sun and Moon, but the idea that the circle was built for a religious purpose must remain likely rather than certain. Grave monuments of rulers are among the help most important remains of ancient civilizations such as the Egyptian pyramids; and the sepulchral structures of Chinese rulers since the Chou Period, c. 1111-255 BC). Lady Sleepwalking? There is anthem, worldwide evidence that in archaic cultures man considered the points of the compass to have mythological affiliations (e.g., the in striped questions West and death or the East and a new beginning). Mythological views even influenced building activity.
One architectural feature that can have mythological significance is the column. Essay? In a number of popular traditions the sky is believed to be supported by one or more columns. The relatively strict separation between religious and the boy civil architecture that modern man is perhaps inclined to take for granted has not existed in most cultures and periods and perhaps is not universal even in modern times. Even when art ceases to represent mythological matters outright, it is still usually far from representational. That art has ceased to represent mythology is challenged by some theorists, who argue that what seems to be abandonment of mythological forms is essay, really only a change in mythology. The opposing arguments are analogous to the favorable or unfavorable attitudes toward myth that religions have developed. Myth is one of the principal roots of drama. Lady? This is particularly obvious in the earliest Western drama, the tragedies of classical Greece, not only because of the anthem essay help many mythological subjects treated and the plays' performance at i like most quran the festival of Dionysus but also because of the anthem essay playwrights' mythlike presentation of events and question facts. An example of such presentation is the story pattern, notably the way retribution follows transgression.
Another feature of Greek drama that is relevant to the subject of myth is the fact that the role of the essay help chorus was taken by a group of ordinary citizens. In Greek tragedy the heroic past was presented and explored by a chorus of nonheroic individuals; hence the meaning of the inherited myths was examined by a collectivity that can be seen as standing for pyjamas essay questions, the wider collectivity (more than 10,000 in number) that constituted the audience at the plays. In its songs the chorus frequently had recourse to expressions of a proverbial kind, using the distilled wisdom of the community to account for the strange and often disturbing events represented in the plays. The origins of essay help, drama are obscure, but Theodor Gaster, an American historian of religion, has suggested that in the ancient eastern Mediterranean world the interrelationship of the book i like quran essay, myth and ritual created drama. Elsewhere, dramatic presentations (as in Japanese No plays and the Javanese wayang) are similarly rooted in myth. Dance has been a medium for the expression of mythological themes throughout the world and in essay all periods for which there is evidence. Especially common are dances aimed at ensuring the essays continuity of fertility or the success of hunting, at curing the anthem help sick, or at i like most quran achieving shamanistic trance states. An aspect of the decay of ritual in the modern West is the tendency for dance to anthem, lose its close and direct connection with the life of the community. A further consequence is club harlem, that the role of dance in embodying and exploring a community's myths has often been overlooked, and dance may have become further removed from myth than any other form of art in the Western world.
There are important and anthem help significant exceptions, however. The Book Most Quran Essay? One of the most notable is the work of the anthem essay help American choreographer Martha Graham, who frequently used mythical themes--often drawn from cotton essays Greek antiquity--as the inspiration for her ballets. Myth and music are linked in anthem many cultures and in various ways. In Striped Essay Questions? For example, numerous stories ascribe the origins of music to a figure, usually divine, who lived in the mythical past. Thus, in ancient Greece the lyre was said to have been invented by the god Hermes, who handed it on to his brother Apollo as part of a bargain. From then on anthem Apollo played the lyre at the banquets of the gods, while the Muses sang to his accompaniment. The Foundation Tone.
An ancient Chinese myth tells of the discovery of the foundation tone, which, in addition to being a musical note of specific pitch, also had political implications, since each dynasty was thought to essays, have its own proper pitch. Tones are an indispensable part of Chinese literature, as characters in poetry and prose were chosen according to tones and rhymes for their euphony. This use of language helps in reconstructing the pronunciation of Old Chinese and Middle Chinese, since the Chinese writing system is anthem essay, logographic. Asking Question? The foundation tone was produced when Ling Lun, the founder of Chinese music and a scholar, went to the western mountain area of China and cut a bamboo pipe in such a way that it produced the correct sound. He is said to anthem help, have traveled to a distant land and made a set of 12 flutes with bamboo. This set of flutes could produce 12 tones and became the basis of music. Throughout the world music is played at religious ceremonies to most quran, increase the efficacy and appeal of prayers, hymns, and invocations to divinities. Anthem Essay? The power of music to charm the gods is movingly expressed in the Greek story of Orpheus. This mythical figure goes to the underworld to try to have his dead wife, Eurydice, restored to life. By means of his lyre playing and singing he is able to asking question in essay, win over essay help even the god of death, so that Eurydice is allowed to themes essays, leave the essay help underworld.
The continuing potency of the myth (including its tragic conclusion--Orpheus is forbidden to look back at asking in essay his wife but does so and thus loses her again) is shown by the fact that it has been retold in Europe by numerous composers of opera since the early 17th century. That a particularly close connection exists between myth and music has been argued by Claude Levi-Strauss. In an essay help, analysis of the myths of certain South American Indians ( Myth and History. Myth and history represent alternative ways of looking at the past. Defining history is hardly easier than defining myth, but a historical approach necessarily involves both establishing a chronological framework for events and comparing and contrasting rival traditions in order to produce a coherent account. The latter process, in particular, requires the presence of writing in order that conflicting versions of the past may be recorded and evaluated.
Where writing is absent, or where literacy is restricted, traditions embedded in myths through oral transmission may constitute the principal sources of authority for the past. Hence, myths may be cited when a situation in the present is materially affected by themes, what version of the past is accepted. For instance, if a dispute arises among the Iatmul of Papua New Guinea over the rights of different clans to possess land, the anthem essay help contending parties take part in oral contests involving the recitation of long lists of essay, mythological names and other details from the anthem essay help myths. I Like? Since each clan's view of the mythic past has implications for the ownership of estates by persons living in essay the present, victory in these contests is a matter of direct practical importance to the participants. Even in societies where literacy is widespread and where a considerable body of professional historians is at work, it may still be the case that a majority of the population form their views of the past on the basis of inherited mythlike traditions. Flowers? Examples from the 20th century in Europe would be the polarized communities (Protestant and anthem help Roman Catholic) of Northern Ireland, or pro- and anti-Communist sympathizers in Greece.
In the former case, the two communities have different and irreconcilable pictures of the events related to the partition of Ireland. Lady? In the latter case, the course of the civil war (after the end of World War II) is viewed quite differently by the two groups. These rival traditions may be described as mythlike because they are narratives with a strong validating function--the function of justifying current enmities and current loyalties--and they are believed with a quasi-religious faith against which objective historical testing is all but powerless. Finally, similarities to myths may be present even in essay the work of those who are justifiably described as historians. A clear instance of question in essay, this is the ancient Greek writer Herodotus, the so-called father of essay, history.
He had the radically original idea of writing an account of the struggle between the Greek world and its barbarian neighbours during the Persian Wars, an account that combined and evaluated a range of disparate and often conflicting pieces of information. Themes Essays? On these grounds he should certainly be described as a historian. Yet, his work is full of themes and story patterns that also occur in Greek myths--for example, transgression against the gods leads to retribution; again, people who live at the margins of the Greek world are imagined as having customs that are the exact inverse of their Greek equivalents. In the anthem essay help work of Herodotus there is no incompatibility between myth and thesis flowers history; both historical events and the patterns into which such happenings are perceived as falling form part of his overall enterprise: namely, to conduct an inquiry (the meaning of the Greek word historia) into essay help, the past. As with the flowers for algernon distinction between myth and science, then, that between myth and history is by no means a straightforward one. Cosmogony and creation myth are used as synonyms, yet properly speaking, cosmogony is a preferable term because it refers to the origin of the world in a neutral fashion, whereas creation myth implies a creator and something created, an implication unsuited to a number of myths that, for example, speak of the origin of the world as a growth or emanation, rather than an act. Even the term origin should be used with caution for cosmogonic events (as well as for other myths purporting to anthem, describe the beginning of things), because the origin of the world hardly ever seems the focal point of a mythological narrative--as a mythological narrative is not a matter of inquiry into the boy in striped pyjamas essay, the first cause of things.
Instead, cosmogonic myths are concerned with origins in the sense of the foundation or validity of the world as it is. Creation stories in both primitive and advanced cultures frequently speak of the act of creation as a fashioning of the earth out of raw material that was already present. In African cosmogonies, especially, the earth is preexistent. A creation out of nothing occurs as a theme much less frequently, for all that such creation myths are more satisfying to help, the philosophical mind. Philosophical questions, however, are less important in the justificatory systems set up by myth. Water, though important everywhere as a source of i like most quran essay, life and image of endless potentiality, has a special role in anthem essay Asia and North America, where the creator (often an animal) is assisted by another figure, who dives for earth in the primordial ocean. The earth-diver helper sometimes develops into an opponent, or Satan-like character, in other areas--e.g., those touched by i like, Zoroastrianism, an ancient Persian dualistic religion. Though hardly an explanation in essay help the ordinary sense of the word, the theme accounts for the fact that evil is for argumentative, constitutive of the help cosmos without holding the renaissance creator responsible for it. Other widely diffused motifs are: the cosmogonic egg, found in the Pacific world, parts of Europe and southern Asia (e.g., in Hinduism); the world parents (usually in the image of sky and earth); and creation through sacrifice or through a primordial battle. Anthem? Creation through the word of the macbeth essay creator also occurs outside the Old Testament account (in Polynesia).
Cosmogony sets the pattern for everything else in most traditions; other myths are related to it or derived from it. Because man's inhabitable world, the essay cosmos, is the crucial issue, no matter how various the themes for argumentative essays contents may be and how different from one period to another, cosmogony probably is the clearest expression of man's basic mythological propensity. All cosmogonic accounts have certain formal features in common. They speak of irreconcilable opposites (e.g., heaven and earth, darkness and light) and, at the same time, of events or things totally outside the common range of perception and reason (e.g., a time in which heaven and earth were not yet separated and darkness and anthem help light intermingled). In other words, the basic ingredients of man's world and orientation are presupposed yet are realized, constituted, or brought about anew in the narration. The narrative can arrive at such a reconstitution only by transcending the limits of ordinary perception and reason. The origin of man is the boy in striped essay, usually linked immediately to the cosmogony. Essay Help? Man, for instance, is placed on the earth by God, or in some other way his origin is from heaven. Nevertheless, it is only in mythologies influenced by themes for argumentative, philosophical reflections that the anthem help place of man becomes the for argumentative conspicuous centre of the cosmogony (e.g., Pythagoreanism, a Greek mystical philosophical system; Orphism, a Greek mystical religious movement; Gnosticism, a Christian dualistic and esoteric movement; and Tantrism, a Hindu and anthem Buddhist esoteric meditation system).
Man is sometimes said to have ascended from the depths of the sleepwalking essay earth (as with the Zuni, an American Indian people) or from a certain rock or tree of help, cultic significance. Asking In Essay? These images are often related to the idea of a realm of ancestors as the origin of newborn children. Man is also said to be fashioned from the dust of the ground (as in Genesis) or from a mixture of clay and blood (as in the Babylonian creation myth). In all cases, however, man has a particular place (because of his duties to the gods, because of his limitations, or even because of his gifts), even though--especially in many hunters' civilizations (e.g., the African San peoples and many North American Indian tribes)--the harmony of man and other forms of nature is emphasized. In most cosmogonic traditions the final or culminating act is the creation of man. Help? The condition of the cosmos prior to for algernon, man's arrival is viewed as separate and distinct from the alterations that result from the beginning of the human cultural world. Creation is thus seen as a process of periods or stages, frequently in a three-stage model. The first stage consists of the world of gods or primordial beings; the second stage is the world of the ancestors of man; and the third stage is the world of essay, man. The three stages are sometimes seen as interrelated; for example, the gods may be the in essay creators of man or the ancestors of man, or ancestors may undergo a transformation to become men. Among innumerable tales of origin, one of the most common types is anthem essay, related to the origins of for algernon, institutions.
Certain initiation ceremonies or ritual acts are said to have originated in the beginning, in mythical times, this primeval moment of anthem, inception constituting their validity. Myths of Eschatology and Destruction. Myths of eschatology deal with the end. The end is conceived of as the opposite of the cosmogony; it means first and foremost the origin of death but also, in a wider sense, the end of the world. Special forms of eschatology are prevalent in messianism (belief in a future salvation figure) and essay questions millenarianism (belief in a 1,000-year reign of the elect). Myths about the origin of death, for which an added explanation has to be found in the sense that death is not seen as automatically the end of help, life, are probably as widely diffused as creation stories. One of the most common types of such myths speaks of a primordial time in which death did not exist and explains that it arose as the result of an error, as a punishment, or simply because the creator decided the earth would get too crowded otherwise. One example of a myth about the asking question origin of anthem, death may be regarded as characteristic; it occurs, with variations, in many parts of the world. Among the Zulus the story is told that the supreme being Unkulunkulu. Unkulunkulu was the creator god of the Zulu. Unkulunkulu was believed to have grown on a reed in the mythical swamp of Uthlanga.
In the Zulu language, the name means ancestor. The god is in fact a genderless deity, though Biblical translations of the god on the part of Christian missionaries to Southern Africa incorrectly label Unkulunkulu as specifically male. Unkulunkulu instructed the chameleon to take a message to mankind, saying that they would be immortal. But the chameleon moved slowly, since he stopped to have something to eat (or, according to a variant, basked in the sun and fell asleep). Question In Essay? In due course the essay help supreme being changed his mind and sent a lizard to men, telling them that they would die. The lizard arrived and delivered his message. When the chameleon eventually arrived, his message conflicted with what mankind had already been told by the lizard.
The chameleon was not believed, and men were mortal from then on. Expectations of thesis, a cataclysmic end of the world are also expressed by myths. A universal conflagration with a final battle and defeat of the gods is part of Germanic mythology and has parallels in other examples of Indo-European eschatological imagery. In many primitive religions specific expectations about the end of the anthem world do occur, but until recently they have not received much scholarly attention. An example of such a belief about the end of the world is found among the Pawnee Indians. In their view, there will come a time when everything will disappear and the star of death will govern the world. The Moon will turn red, the Sun will be extinguished, and asking question men will be turned into stars flying along the route to heaven now taken by the dead. Messianic and Millenarian Myths. The hope of a new world surges up from time to time in many civilizations. Many such religious movements flourished in the 20th century in Melanesia, Africa, South America, and Siberia.
Christian elements are usually detectable, but the basic element in virtually all cases is indigenous. These cults and anthem help movements centre on prophetic leaders, often emphasize the return of the dead at the renewal to come, and are convinced of a catastrophic end of the present world. In many cases, the the book quran essay culture hero is expected to return and lead believers in battle against the evil forces. In the history of Judaism and Christianity, as in many primitive millenarian and help messianic movements, there is an expectation of the book i like most, a new heaven and a new earth. Myths of Culture Heroes and anthem essay Esoteriological Myths.
A great many nonliterate traditions have myths about a culture hero most notably one who brings new techniques or technology to cotton essays, mankind--e.g., Prometheus, who supplies fire to mankind in Greek Mythology. A culture hero is generally not the person responsible for essay help, the creation but the lady macbeth one who completes the world and essay help makes it fit for themes for argumentative, human life; in short, he creates culture. Another example of a culture hero is essay help, Maui in Polynesia, who brought islands to the surface from the bottom of the sea, captured and harnessed the Sun, lifted the sky to allow man more room, and, like Prometheus, gave fire to mankind. The bringer of culture is often also the bringer of health. Thus, the culture hero of the Woodlands and Plains Indians in North America is at the same time related to the foundation of the medicine society linked to Shamanism. A comparable figure occurs in many traditions of classical antiquity or the Mediterranean basin generally as the the book essay good son--e.g., Horus, the son of the god Osiris in Egypt, or the anthem essay help figure of the king in the Psalms. Health and (spiritual) salvation are synonymous, and this is implied in renaissance essays the Greek word soter, which can mean both savior and preserver from ill health. Related to soteriological myths in many cases is the hope for a final and anthem total salvation in which the good powers will triumph, such as through Saoshyant, the savior in Zoroastrianism.
In fact, Zoroastrianism shared with the Judeo-Christian tradition the notion of a Last Judgment followed by the ultimate salvation of the world. According to Zoroastrian belief, as the end approached heroes from the past would come to life and help in the struggle of most quran, good against evil. Saviors, the Saoshyants, would work toward the triumph of essay help, virtue and the spreading of heavenly light over all creation. Myths of Time and Eternity. The apparent regularity of the heavenly bodies long impressed every society. The sky was seized as the very image of transcendence, and what seemed to cotton club harlem renaissance, be the orderly course of Sun, Moon, and stars suggested a time that transcended man's eternity. Many myths and mythological images concern themselves with the relationship between eternity and time on earth. The number four for the number of anthem help, world ages figures most frequently. The Zoroastrians of the boy in striped essay, ancient Persia knew of a complete world age of 12,000 years, divided into four periods of 3,000 each, at the end of which Ormazd (Wise Lord) would conquer Ahriman (Destructive Spirit). Similarly, the Book of Daniel (in the Old Testament) mentions four kingdoms--of gold, silver, bronze, and anthem essay help a mixture of iron and clay, respectively--after which God will establish an everlasting kingdom. Pyjamas Essay Questions? The notion of four world ages, sometimes associated with metals, occurs also in the works of classical writers and in later speculative writings on human history.
Judaism developed the view of a 1,000-year period between the four world ages and the everlasting kingdom (hence the words millennium and millenarian). Although other numbers occur (three, six, seven, 12, and 72), four is dominant. Anthem Essay Help? In ancient Mexico this world was held to be preceded by four other worlds. India, in both Hindu and Buddhist texts, has developed the most complex system of world ages and worlds that arise and come to lady macbeth, an end. Here, too, the help number four is important--e.g., the four ages (yugas) of decreasing length and increasing evil. Many writings, often with large numbers, reflect exact astronomical observations and calculations. Some mythologies--e.g., those of the Mayan in Central America--have developed sophisticated views interrelating time and space. Mythological accounts of repetitions of asking question in essay, worlds after their destruction occur not only in India but also elsewhere, such as in Orphism and in the Stoic philosophy that flourished in anthem essay classical antiquity.
Myths of Providence and Destiny. In attitudes to the idea of a link between human activity and the stars, the most familiar example of which is probably astrology, there is a broad range of cotton renaissance, mythical motifs between astrological calculations (in the sense of an anthem help, attempt at an intellectualized account of what is happening) and devotional self-surrender. There are many occasions at which a man may be filled with doubt about his own fate or the fate of his community. In some myths divine supremacy is marked by a god's mastery over fate. Marduk, the patron god of Babylon, acquires the tablets of fate in his primordial battle preceding the creation. There is thesis flowers for algernon, no doubt about Zeus' supremacy in the Greek poet Hesiod's genealogical account of the gods, yet in the works of Homer, Zeus is powerless to defy fate and essay save the life of in essay, his son Sarpedon. Mythological views of providence, destiny, or fate are given precise shades of meaning dominant views in a tradition concerning justice and divine law, the philosophical problem of determinism, the theological problems of theodicy (justification of a good god with observable facts of evil), and essay help predestination. An important difference in mythological accounts of providence exists between those traditions that speak of the creation of the world as a result of God's will (as in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam) and in striped essay those that attribute worldly phenomena to causation by a lesser being (as Buddhism does).
Myths of High Beings and Celestial Gods. Supreme celestial deities occur in many mythologies, with various qualities and attributes, in many shapes, and with great diversity in cultic significance. A cardinal distinction exists between the supreme being in many archaic or polytheistic traditions and the God of the great monotheistic systems (Judaism, Christianity, and Islam). Even though certain qualities seem alike in many cases (e.g., transcendence, omniscience), the essay God of the asking question latter arose historically in a reaction to polytheistic views and practices and anthem essay help demonstrates his supremacy accordingly, whereas the more archaic types of supreme beings nowhere show that aggressive aspect in their mythologies. The exalted status of sleepwalking, archaic supreme beings and celestial gods does not necessarily involve exclusion of other supreme beings. Outstanding examples are Vishnu, Shiva, and the great goddess in Hindu literature, who are each described as supreme yet do not reduce the reality of the others. Supremacy is not as unambiguous and general a term as it seems, and in Hinduism it refers first and foremost to anthem essay, the perfection (i.e., the idea that a deity is supremely perfect) of a deity in himself. The sky seen as a sacred entity is an asking question in essay, all but universal belief. It is often related to or identical with the highest divinity.
Nevertheless, supreme beings are always more than what can be explained from celestial phenomena alone, for they are often called creators of the world, founders of the order of the world, and protectors of law; and they are praised for essay, their eternity and goodness. Often, the supreme being that created the world does not--or has ceased to--receive attention in the cult, although he may still be invoked in moments of great crisis. In a good many ancient agricultural societies, the idea of a great goddess prevailed instead of a male creator-god. Sleepwalking? The great goddess (as in the ancient Middle East and India) is venerated principally because of her omnipotence, especially her power over life. The sky god-creator sometimes cedes to a divinity who is also related to the sky but apparently is help, experienced more concretely because of his activity. Such a divinity (especially in pastoral cultures) can be a god of atmospheric phenomena (storm, rain, thunder, or lightning), whose power for most essay, the good of the people is extolled.
In spite of his power, however, he is one of anthem, several gods, and in for algernon some cases (Yahweh in ancient Israel and Allah in Islam) one such god retains the full creative function of early creator gods, and in him all true divinity is anthem help, concentrated. In addition, a divinity related to the Sun rather than the heavens can assume preeminence; this has happened in questions some ancient imperial traditions (e.g., Egypt, Inca Empire). Among sky gods who remained important in the mythologies of ancient civilizations are Zeus in Greece, Jupiter in anthem essay Rome, and T'ien in China. Myths Concerning Founders of Religions and Other Religious Figures. Although the founders of great religions (Confucius, Zoroaster, the Buddha, Moses, Jesus, Mani, Muhammad) are generally conceded to have had actual existence, information about them is couched in flowers legendary terms that have many mythological features. The same is true of many other religious figures (prophets, saints, or gurus [Hindu spiritual teachers]). Those traditions that have preserved the memory of their founders have, as a rule, carefully emphasized the elements that function most mythologically, in essay the sense that they state categorically realities that could not be known in any ordinary fashion or that raise the founder above ordinary historical conditions. Examples are the themes account of Jesus' prayer in Gethsemane, which no one heard according to essay help, the text itself, his statement that he was before Abraham, and his prophecies.
Buddhist texts state that the Buddha not merely surpassed all yogis in knowledge of previous existences but, in fact, had conquered time. Well known too are his predictions concerning the course and decline of Buddhism and (in Mahayana texts) his promises as to the future spiritual attainments of the bodhisattvas. Other examples are Muhammad's eschatological teachings in the Qur'an and those of Zoroaster. Myths of Kings and Ascetics. Genuine myths concerning kings are found only in traditions that know a form of sacred kingship. Temple records from ancient Babylon mention offerings to kings who were considered divine. Hymns addressed to them make references to the king's union with a goddess--i.e., the mythological motif of the sacred marriage.
One of the epithets for the boy in striped essay questions, the king in ancient Egypt was endowed with life or imparting life. The twofold meaning of the anthem essay epithet is significant and can serve to make the mythology of sacred kingship understandable in other places as well, because the club function of the king is in fact double. He mediates between the divine world and the world of man, representing each to the other. Hence, in Egypt a sacrifice by an individual was understood as offered to the king and at anthem essay help the same time by the king. The king's role of mediator and protector brings royal mythologies close to myths of culture heroes. Solemn procedures in which kings become divinities occur relatively late in history. An early and most conspicuous case of such an apotheosis (becoming divine) is that of lady, Alexander the essay help Great, who was called a god in his lifetime. Later, apotheosis took place for Roman emperors, although there are no cases of an emperor being accorded divine honours in the boy in striped his lifetime. A great many legends have accumulated around the figures of kings (e.g., around King Asoka of India and King Arthur in Britain). Stories about the Holy Roman emperor Frederick I Barbarossa and Charlemagne have a somewhat eschatological mythical flavor, because they are said to dwell each in his mountain (in the KyffhSuser and the Untersberg, respectively) until they appear again to act as saviours in anthem essay help a crisis.
Most narratives about great ascetics, as well as other saints, could be regarded as legends rather than myths. There are, however, instances of saints or ascetics who are presented as a more than worldly model, so that a case can be made for the mythological function of their legends (e.g., al-Hallaj in Islam and St. Francis in Christianity). In the case of traditions that have asceticism as an integral part, certain figures and the legends around them do indeed function as exemplars. Myths of Transformation. Countless stories exist concerning the origin of peculiar rocks, properties of animals, plants, stars, or other features in question in essay the world. In addition to such etiologic tales there are several myths that speak of cosmic changes brought about at the end of primordial times. An altogether different and extensive mythology exists concerning initiation rites and other rites of passage that involve transformation of man's being. Cosmic transformation may concern an original world, without proper human means of help, existence and without death, that was transformed through a certain event (e.g., the essay questions death of Hainuwele, a type of anthem essay help, primal being known as a dema, or ancestral, deity) into the world known to mankind, a truly inhabitable world with vegetation, animals, and other features that had not existed before. On a wider scale are myths that could be appendages to cosmogonic myths but that have not turned into themes for argumentative essays, mere etiologies.
Many myths akin to the type of the dema deity like Hainuwele, The Coconut Girl and to the culture-hero type - like Prometheus - account for events, such as the invention of anthem essay, agriculture, domestication of animals, and the use of the boy in striped essay questions, fire that have transformed the world for the benefit of man. Many others are just as closely related to cosmogonic accounts but tell of setbacks in primordial times. In agricultural societies, for example, myths have been collected that ascribe the unevenness of anthem essay, land or the formation of mountains to an ancient mishap or evil force. In rites of passage (e.g., rites accompanying birth, attainment of asking, maturity, marriage, death) the anthem essay contents of myths are acted out. In each case the intention behind the rites is that man's mode of being be affected, indeed transformed. Through the birth ceremony the child becomes a person, and through initiation an adolescent becomes an adult, a member of a sodality, or a warrior.
There is a great variety of customs in different communities and traditions, but everywhere these rites dramatize graphically the cosmic processes and realities expressed in language in myths. In many traditions the myths of the community are conveyed to the novice at the time of his initiation. Even in the major world religions rites of passage are still performed, as evidenced in such ceremonies as circumcision, Baptism, weddings, and mortuary rites. In all instances, the rites derive their meaning from the core of the tradition, and for that reason man's existence is regarded as transformed. In some cases the transformation derived from the question dominant myth is anthem, far-reaching. The initiated shaman is able to transcend the ordinary human condition and overcome dangers that would cause the death of flowers for algernon, a noninitiate. Through his initiation he is believed to have gone through death and thus conquered it. In certain Hermetic (an occult magical tradition) and Gnostic texts the certainty of attaining divine being is clearly expressed.
Myth in Modern Society. Secularization of Myth and Mythology. Deciding the extent to which there has actually been any secularization of myth involves a problem of definition. If myth is anthem essay, seen as the cotton harlem essays product of a past era, it is difficult to determine at help what actual moment that era ended. Thus, it is virtually impossible to state precisely when a certain mythical theme becomes a mere literary theme or to determine in general when myths are no longer being created. For Algernon? It is more fruitful to recognize that symbols, myths, and rituals are all subject to change over time.
Nor is secularization an anthem essay help, irreversible process. Sleepwalking Essay? It is instead a process that takes place time and again. Secularization movements and movements toward mythification of a phenomenon, narrative, or idea are aspects of the same historical processes. There have also been many types of secularization; the one brought about in Western society since the Middle Ages is anthem essay, only a single example. Another instance was the development in archaic and classical Greece (sometimes referred to--with great oversimplification--as a movement from quran myth to reason) whereby fundamental questions about the nature of the universe came increasingly to receive answers in anthem essay help terms of philosophical, as opposed to mythical, reasoning. On the other hand, although the secularization of modern times is not a unique phenomenon, it is a new and complex type, to which many factors have contributed.
Scientific, particularly astronomical, discoveries of the themes for argumentative essays late medieval and Renaissance periods were accompanied by a new trust in cosmic laws and anthem essay an increasingly abstract notion of God. More or less Euhemeristic historical accounts that were common in asking the Middle Ages and were a symptom of anthem help, a certain secularization process themselves gave way to history writing, focusing on psychological, social, and economic facts. In philosophy, naturalism of various sorts opposed notions of transcendence that earlier systems had taken for granted. The most common tendency in modern society has been to regard the thesis flowers for algernon characters and events in mythical accounts as not real or as by-products of realities that are not transcendent but rather immanent. This secularization in anthem modern society, like earlier secularization processes, is accompanied by a process whereby new myths are formed (see below Political and social uses of myth). Demythologization of major religious traditions. Demythologization should be distinguished from secularization. For Argumentative Essays? Every living mythology must come to terms with the world in which it is transmitted and to that extent inevitably goes through processes of secularization. Demythologization, however, refers to the conscious efforts people make to purify a religious tradition of its mythological elements. Essay? The term demythologization (Entmytho-logisierung) was coined by Rudolf Bultmann, a German theologian and New Testament scholar. Lady Essay? In the strict sense of the word, demythologizing efforts have been limited to theological discussions in 20th-century Christianity.
Even after secularization has taken place a certain mythological residue may persist. Anthem Help? Edward B. Tylor, one of the founders of flowers for algernon, anthropology as an academic discipline in the 19th century, coined the use of the word survival for customs and beliefs that continued to be adhered to long after the context in which they had had their meaning had ceased to exist. Because such customs and beliefs may be regarded as mere superstitions, the word survival usually has a slightly derogatory overtone. Essay Help? There are many survivals of myth in this sense. The myth of the noble savage, well-known from the 18th-century writer Jean-Jacques Rousseau, can be understood as a survival of a paradisiacal mythology: Western man expecting to find evidence of paradise on earth. The secularization process in modern times has affected symbolic behavior (cult, ritual, liturgy) and harlem symbolic objects (sacred places) more than myth, however. Nevertheless, commonly accepted forms of mythology in modern society do not permeate all parts of society or fulfill all needs. (In all likelihood, no society has ever been perfectly homogeneous in its myths.) At the same time there exist profound mythological needs in modern society, and some are filled by myths borrowed from submerged or alien traditions.
Modern society's neglect of cosmic symbolism (which in anthem help contrast was widespread in archaic tradition) has provoked certain reactions, such as the continuing interest in astrology, which may even be seen as an attempt to present a coherent account of the cosmos. And the huge scientific advances of the 20th century have given rise to a literature, science fiction, that resembles myth, even down to an eschatological element. Political and themes for argumentative Social Uses of Myth. In the industrialized Western society of the 20th century, myths and related types of tales continue to anthem essay, be told. Urban folklorists collect stories that have much in common with the i like quran tales collected by the Grimm brothers, except that in the modern narratives the lone traveler is likely to be threatened, not by a werewolf, but by a phantom hitchhiker, and the location of his danger may be a freeway rather than a forest. Computer games use sophisticated technology to represent quests involving dragons to be slain and princesses to be saved and married. The myth of Superman, the superhuman hero who saves the world and essay preserves the American way, is a notable image embodying modern Americans' confidence in the moral values that their culture espouses. Not dissimilar are myths about the early pioneers in the American Wild West, as retold in countless motion pictures. Club Harlem Renaissance? Such stories often reinforce stereotypical attitudes about the moral superiority of the settlers to anthem essay help, the native Indians, although sometimes such attitudes are called into question in other movies that attempt to demythologize the Wild West.
A particular illustration of the power that myths continue to exert was provided as late as the 1940s by the belief in the existence of an Aryan racial group, separate from and superior to lady macbeth essay, the Semitic group. Anthem? This myth was based in part on the assumption that peoples whose languages are related are also related racially. The fact that this assumption is spurious did not prevent the Aryan myth from gaining wide acceptance in Europe from the 18th century onward, and it was eventually to provide a supposed intellectual justification for the persecution of the Semitic Jews by their Aryan Germanic superiors during the period of Nazi domination. This episode suggests that, in politics, a myth will take hold if it serves the interests and focuses the aspirations of a particular group; the truth or falsity of the myth is irrelevant. In a sense, of course, this function is merely an extension of its more general role in religion, where a myth, as well as addressing questions such as a society's place in the cosmos, may serve to justify a particular kind of governmental organization. Although politics is often regarded as having taken over the role once played by religion or myth in Western society, the situation is more complex than such a generalization would imply. Just as myth has always had a strong social and political element, so political movements and theories have mythical dimensions. For instance, a mythological component has always been important in keeping political units together, from villages to nations. Recently, however, this mythical dimension has gained prominence with the rise of for algernon, competing myth-like ideologies such as capitalism and communism; the word ideology might indeed be replaced, in much contemporary discussion about politics, by the term mythology.
Finally, crucial terms in modern sociopolitical discussion, such as freedom and equality, although they have a long and complex philosophical history, are often posited in a manner analogous to the function of myth presenting its own authority.
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essays about essay, fun New Memoryhole story : Reinventing Big Brother [8 June,2003] A couple of days ago a new story has been added to asking question, the Memoryhole. Essay Help. Read more. 1984 opera [4 May,2005] On May the 3rd the the book opera adaption of George Orwell's 1984 received its premiere in the Royal Opera House (Covent Garden) in London. Read more. I saw the vision that he was seeing. And it wasn?t at all the kind of vision that can be talked about. What he?s saying is anthem essay, merely that Hitler?s after us and we must all get together and have a good hate.
Doesn?t go into details. Leaves it all respectable. But what he is seeing is something quite different. It?s a picture of sleepwalking essay, himself smashing people?s faces in with a spanner. , George Orwell, Coming up for Air. Changes in the language. Orwell about his time working in anthem help, a bookshop.
Essay on James Burnham, who inspired Orwell when he imagined the club harlem essays geopolitical structure of 1984. Nationalism in history. Utopia and socialism. Thoughts on nature. Eleven rules for making a perfect cup of anthem, tea.
Orwell about autobiographies. Socialism and the English genius. Decay of language in literaure. Spanish war and newspapers. Great man's thoughts on another great man. Another experience as a policeman in Burma. Work : Essays : Why Socialists Don't believe in Fun. Dickens dealt successfully with Christmas twice in a chapter of The Pickwick Papers and in A Christmas Carol. The latter story was read to Lenin on his deathbed and according to club renaissance essays, his wife, he found its 'bourgeois sentimentality' completely intolerable.
Now in a sense Lenin was right: but if he had been in better health he would perhaps have noticed that the story has interesting sociological implications. To begin with, however thick Dickens may lay on the paint, however disgusting the essay 'pathos' of Tiny Tim may be, the Cratchit family give the impression of enjoying themselves. Themes For Argumentative. They sound happy as, for instance, the anthem essay help citizens of William Morris's News From Nowhere don't sound happy. Moreover and Dickens's understanding of this is one of the secrets of lady macbeth, his power their happiness derives mainly from contrast. They are in high spirits because for once in a way they have enough to eat.
The wolf is at anthem help, the door, but he is wagging his tail. The steam of the Christmas pudding drifts across a background of the book i like most quran, pawnshops and sweated labour, and in a double sense the ghost of Scrooge stands beside the dinner table. Bob Cratchit even wants to drink to Scrooge's health, which Mrs Cratchit rightly refuses. The Cratchits are able to enjoy Christmas precisely because it only comes once a year. Their happiness is convincing just because Christmas only essay help, comes once a year.
Their happiness is convincing just because it is described as incomplete. All efforts to describe permanent happiness, on asking question in essay the other hand, have been failures. Anthem Help. Utopias (incidentally the coined word Utopia doesn't mean 'a good place', it means merely a 'non-existent place') have been common in literature of the past three or four hundred years but the thesis 'favourable' ones are invariably unappetising, and usually lacking in vitality as well. By far the best known modern Utopias are those of anthem essay, H.G. Wells. Wells's vision of the in striped pyjamas essay future is anthem essay, almost fully expressed in two books written in the early Twenties, The Dream and Men Like Gods. Here you have a picture of the sleepwalking world as Wells would like to see it or thinks he would like to see it. It is a world whose keynotes are enlightened hedonism and scientific curiosity. All the essay evils and miseries we now suffer from have vanished.
Ignorance, war, poverty, dirt, disease, frustration, hunger, fear, overwork, superstition all vanished. So expressed, it is impossible to deny that that is the kind of world we all hope for. We all want to abolish the in essay things Wells wants to abolish. But is there anyone who actually wants to live in a Wellsian Utopia? On the contrary, not to live in anthem, a world like that, not to thesis flowers for algernon, wake up in a hygenic garden suburb infested by naked schoolmarms, has actually become a conscious political motive. A book like Brave New World is an expression of the actual fear that modern man feels of the rationalised hedonistic society which it is within his power to anthem, create. A Catholic writer said recently that Utopias are now technically feasible and that in consequence how to avoid Utopia had become a serious problem. We cannot write this off as merely a silly remark. For one of the sources of the Fascist movement is the desire to the boy in striped essay questions, avoid a too -rational and anthem essay help, too-comfortable world.
All 'favourable' Utopias seem to be alike in postulating perfection while being unable to suggest happiness. News From Nowhere is a sort of goody-goody version of the Wellsian Utopia. Asking Question In Essay. Everyone is help, kindly and in essay, reasonable, all the anthem upholstery comes from Liberty's, but the impression left behind is essay, of a sort of watery melancholy. But it is anthem help, more impressive that Jonathan Swift, one of the greatest imaginative writers who have ever lived, is no more successful in constructing a 'favourable' Utopia than the others. The earlier parts of Gulliver's Travels are probably the most devastating attack on human society that has ever been written. Every word of them is cotton harlem, relevant today; in places they contain quite detailed prophecies of the political horrors of our own time. Where Swift fails, however, is in trying to describe a race of beings whom he admires. In the last part, in contrast with disgusting Yahoos, we are shown the noble Houyhnhnms, intelligent horses who are free from human failings. Now these horses, for all their high character and unfailing common sense, are remarkably dreary creatures. Like the inhabitants of various other Utopias, they are chiefly concerned with avoiding fuss.
They live uneventful, subdued, 'reasonable' lives, free not only from quarrels, disorder or insecurity of help, any kind, but also from 'passion', including physical love. They choose their mates on in striped eugenic principles, avoid excesses of affection, and appear somewhat glad to die when their time comes. In the earlier parts of the book Swift has shown where man's folly and scoundrelism lead him: but take away the folly and scoundrelism, and all you are left with, apparently, is a tepid sort of help, existence, hardly worth leading. Attempts at describing a definitely other-worldly happiness have been no more successful. Heaven is cotton renaissance, as great a flop as Utopia though Hell occupies a respectable place in literature, and anthem, has often been described most minutely and lady sleepwalking essay, convincingly. It is a commonplace that the Christian Heaven, as usually portrayed, would attract nobody. Almost all Christian writers dealing with Heaven either say frankly that it is indescribable or conjure up a vague picture of gold, precious stones, and the endless singing of hymns. Essay Help. This has, it is true, inspired some of the best poems in the world: Thy walls are of chalcedony, Thy bulwarks diamonds square, Thy gates are of right orient pearl Exceeding rich and rare!
But what it could not do was to i like most quran, describe a condition in which the ordinary human being actively wanted to be. Many a revivalist minister, many a Jesuit priest (see, for instance, the terrific sermon in James Joyce's Portrait of the Artist) has frightened his congregation almost out of their skins with his word-pictures of Hell. But as soon as it comes to Heaven, there is help, a prompt falling-back on words like 'ecstasy' and 'bliss', with little attempt to say what they consist in. Perhaps the most vital bit of writing on themes this subject is the famous passage in anthem essay help, which Tertullian explains that one of the macbeth chief joys of Heaven is watching the tortures of the damned. The pagan versions of Paradise are little better, if at all. Anthem Essay. One has the the book i like quran essay feeling it is always twilight in the Elysian fields.
Olympus, where the anthem help gods lived, with their nectar and ambrosia, and their nymphs and Hebes, the 'immortal tarts' as D.H. Lawrence called them, might be a bit more homelike than the Christian Heaven, but you would not want to spend a long time there. Themes Essays. As for the Muslim Paradise, with its 77 houris per anthem man, all presumably clamouring for attention at thesis, the same moment, it is just a nightmare. Nor are the spiritualists, though constantly assuring us that 'all is bright and beautiful', able to anthem help, describe any next-world activity which a thinking person would find endurable, let alone attractive. It is the same with attempted descriptions of perfect happiness which are neither Utopian nor other-worldly, but merely sensual. They always give an impression of emptiness or vulgarity, or both. At the beginning of La Pucelle Voltaire describes the life of Charles IX with his mistress, Agnes Sorel. They were 'always happy', he says.
And what did their happiness consist in? An endless round of feasting, drinking, hunting and love-making. Who would not sicken of such an existence after a few weeks? Rabelais describes the fortunate spirits who have a good time in the next world to console them for having had a bad time in the boy essay, this one. They sing a song which can be roughly translated: 'To leap, to dance, to play tricks, to drink the wine both white and red, and to anthem, do nothing all day long except count gold crowns' how boring it sounds, after all! The emptiness of the whole notion of an everlasting 'good time' is shown up in Breughel's picture The Land of the themes essays Sluggard, where the three great lumps of fat lie asleep, head to head, with the boiled eggs and roast legs of pork coming up to anthem essay help, be eaten of their own accord.
It would seem that human beings are not able to describe, nor perhaps to imagine, happiness except in terms of contrast. Lady Sleepwalking Essay. That is why the conception of Heaven or Utopia varies from essay age to age. In pre-industrial society Heaven was described as a place of endless rest, and as being paved with gold, because the experience of the average human being was overwork and poverty. The houris of the Muslim Paradise reflected a polygamous society where most of the women disappeared into flowers the harems of the rich. Anthem Essay Help. But these pictures of 'eternal bliss' always failed because as the bliss became eternal (eternity being thought of as endless time), the contrast ceased to operate. Some of the conventions embedded in our literature first arose from the book quran essay physical conditions which have now ceased to exist. The cult of spring is an example. In the Middle Ages spring did not primarily mean swallows and wild flowers. It meant green vegetables, milk and fresh meat after several months of essay, living on salt pork in smoky windowless huts. The spring songs were gay Do nothing but eat and make good cheer, And thank Heaven for the merry year When flesh is cheap and females dear, And lusty lads roam here and there So merrily, And ever among so merrily! because there was something to be so gay about.
The winter was over, that was the great thing. In Essay. Christmas itself, a pre-Christian festival, probably started because there had to be an occasional outburst of overeating and drinking to make a break in the unbearable northern winter. The inability of mankind to imagine happiness except in the form of relief, either from effort or pain, presents Socialists with a serious problem. Dickens can describe a poverty-stricken family tucking into a roast goose, and can make them appear happy; on the other hand, the inhabitants of perfect universes seem to anthem essay, have no spontaneous gaiety and are usually somewhat repulsive into pyjamas essay the bargain. But clearly we are not aiming at the kind of world Dickens described, nor, probably, at any world he was capable of imagining. The Socialist objective is not a society where everything comes right in the end, because kind old gentlemen give away turkeys.
What are we aiming at, if not a society in anthem essay help, which 'charity' would be unnecessary? We want a world where Scrooge, with his dividends, and cotton club harlem renaissance essays, Tiny Tim, with his tuberculous leg, would both be unthinkable. But does that mean we are aiming at some painless, effortless Utopia? At the essay risk of saying something which the editors of Tribune may not endorse, I suggest that the real objective of harlem renaissance, Socialism is not happiness. Happiness hitherto has been a by-product, and for essay help all we know it may always remain so. The real objective of Socialism is human brotherhood. This is widely felt to be the case, though it is not usually said, or not said loudly enough. Men use up their lives in heart-breaking political struggles, or get themselves killed in civil wars, or tortured in the secret prisons of the the boy in striped pyjamas essay questions Gestapo, not in order to establish some central-heated, air-conditioned, strip-lighted Paradise, but because they want a world in which human beings love one another instead of swindling and help, murdering one another. And they want that world as a first step. Macbeth Sleepwalking Essay. Where they go from there is not so certain, and essay, the attempt to the book i like most essay, foresee it in detail merely confuses the issue.
Socialist thought has to deal in prediction, but only in help, broad terms. One often has to aim at objectives which one can only the book quran essay, very dimly see. At this moment, for instance, the world is at war and wants peace. Yet the world has no experience of peace, and never has had, unless the Noble Savage once existed. The world wants something which it is dimly aware could exist, but cannot accurately define. This Christmas Day, thousands of men will be bleeding to death in the Russian snows, or drowning in icy waters, or blowing one another to pieces on swampy islands of the Pacific; homeless children will be scrabbling for food among the wreckage of German cities. To make that kind of thing impossible is essay, a good objective. But to the boy questions, say in detail what a peaceful world would be like is a different matter. Nearly all creators of help, Utopia have resembled the man who has toothache, and therefore thinks happiness consists in asking question in essay, not having toothache. They wanted to essay, produce a perfect society by an endless continuation of something that had only been valuable because it was temporary. The wider course would be to say that there are certain lines along which humanity must move, the grand strategy is mapped out, but detailed prophecy is not our business.
Whoever tries to imagine perfection simply reveals his own emptiness. The Boy In Striped. This is the case even with a great writer like Swift, who can flay a bishop or a politician so neatly, but who, when he tries to create a superman, merely leaves one with the impression the very last he can have intended that the stinking Yahoos had in them more possibility of help, development than the enlightened Houyhnhnms. This site is protected by COPYLEFT. You are free to i like most, use any material found on this page as long it is not for a commercial purpose, or unless otherwise stated on anthem essay help the page. However copying this page as a whole is NOT permitted.
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A daughter's college essay about something painful in her life. Someone once told me that hate is a strong word. I completely agree. There are not many people in essay, this world that I can honestly say that I truly hate. It takes a great deal of hurt, anger, and deceit to hate someone. But when you think about it, in essays, many ways hate and essay help love come hand in hand.
People go through hard times and everyone has problems of their own. Lady! But does that give you a reason to “hate” someone? When I hear the word hate, only anthem, a few things come to mind and one of those things is the boy in striped essay my Dad. There are two sides to my Dad, one that I love to death, and one that I hate from the bottom of essay help my heart. As a kid, my Dad lived a pretty average life. He lived with his Mother and themes Father and his two brothers. He grew up with money, went to essay school, had friends, a lob… a rather average life. The only thing that was not average about his life was that he had an alcoholic in the family. His father. Growing up with an essays alcoholic in help, the family increases the chances of becoming an alcoholic by 50 percent. When my parents got married, they promised each other that they would not let alcohol get in question in essay, the way of anything because they knew from experience how terrible that “disease” could be.
Being an alcoholic is considered a disease and essay help it is something that many people simply do not understand. They don’t know how awful it can be and how many people it can effect outside of lady macbeth sleepwalking essay themselves. Unlike them, I know exactly how awful it can be. My Dad is an alcoholic. Both of my Dad’s brothers were alcoholics when they grew up, just as their own father was. Their lives changed because of this and as of today, they are both recovering alcoholics. Essay Help! They know what it’s like, they know about the struggles that come from it, and they know it because they experienced it. Like my father, I lived a more than average life. I lived with my two parents, brother and macbeth sister. I played sports ever since I was four years old, I did almost every extra curricular activity I could and I successfully made it through twelve years of anthem essay schooling.
We always had money, never a ton, but always enough to in striped pyjamas essay get by without worrying. My parents were very supportive to my siblings and I and anthem were always there for us. My parents were never drinkers, except for the few beers my Dad would drink on for argumentative essays the occasional Sunday. It’s hard to say when my average life turned upside down, but my last memories started sometime during my high school career. My Dad and help I always got along so well. We never argued and he was such a kind person. He was always willing to be there for me and thesis always encouraged me to try harder.
Once he started drinking was when our relationship changed completely. I don’t fully recall how old I was when he began drinking more heavily because he was exceptionally discreet about essay it. I was also very nave. My Dad must have been very secretive about this because he got it past my brother, my sister and I for years, not so much my mother. My most distant memory of his drinking is from asking question my junior year in high school. He worked everyday and anthem help as the time progressed, he began never making it home for dinner. He began coming home later and later, each day stumbling a little more than usual.
He was nasty. Cotton Club Renaissance! He was mean. Anthem! He was cruel. He was not my Dad. Although he was never a violent drunk, he displayed his wickedness through his words.
He was constantly angered by the fact that my family and I were always in his face about his drinking. He began avoiding us at renaissance essays, all costs. He was never around and when he was, he was always doing his own thing. By my senior year in anthem help, high school, our relationship had completely fallen apart. I refused to acknowledge him when we was drunk and I couldn’t even bare to be around him. It wasn’t until one average night of my senior year that the hate that I feel for lady macbeth sleepwalking, him today began to kick in.
It was probably eight or nine o’clock at night when he came home. He claimed he was “working late” but we all knew that wasn’t true. He was at essay help, the bar. I was in my room doing homework while the rest of my family was downstairs watching TV before bed. I heard screaming and yelling back and forth between everyone, so I went to see what was the sleepwalking matter.
My Dad’s eyes looked as though they had a layer of water over anthem essay them. Macbeth Sleepwalking! I have never seen them so glossy and help bloodshot before. I started to yell at him and asking question in essay he began getting angry with me and anthem help was screaming at the top of in striped questions his lungs as his face turned bright red. This was the first time in all my life where I can remember him actually screaming at me and getting in essay help, my face. He was not my Dad. I was filled with rage and hate. It was that night that I lost all respect for him. I was tired of his stumbling through the i like most door every night and anthem essay not being there for thesis flowers for algernon, his family anymore. Anthem Essay Help! I was tired of not having my Dad. I wanted everything to go back to asking in essay the way they used to be. It was that night that I slapped my father in the face.
Not in a million years would I ever think that I could be brave enough to slap my father in the face, but I did. The way I look at it is that I didn’t hit my father in the face; I hit the man that I didn’t know in the face. I hated that man with all of my heart. Essay Help! Today, 43% of Americans have been exposed to alcoholism in their families. 43% is just a number to asking in essay the 57% percent of anthem essay help people who haven’t experienced it. Alcohol is a depressant and should be drunken cautiously. Studies have been proven that alcoholism is a disease. I believe it to be true but I also feel as though diseases are not something that you can “choose” not to have. Being an alcoholic is something that you can choose not to be.
Scott Russell Sanders stated in his essay “Under the Influence”, that “He drank because he chose to, pure and simple.” Like my Dad, his was also an alcoholic. If one chooses to flowers drink, then they will drink. Bottom line. My Dad chooses to drink. The night I hit my father, my outlook on everything changed.
Watching him speak disrespectfully to my Mom, as well as my brother and sister truly hurt me. Anthem Help! I was in shock. I continued to finish my senior year, while I watched my family feel the pain from my Dad. Of course I felt it too, but I always stayed away. I avoided seeing my Dad in that state of mind. I did everything I could to stay out of the cotton club harlem house. Today, I somewhat regret not getting involved as much as I should have.
Even now, being away at college, I again am away from it all. Anthem Essay! I despised seeing my own father like that and I loathed the smell that flowed out off of his mouth. I didn’t like one thing about him. I’m not a person that always expresses their feelings to the boy pyjamas other people and essay help this subject is one that I rarely ever talk about. My fathers drinking has broken me down many times to the point where I have cried myself to sleep. It has broken my heart. It has taken away my kind, loving father that I once had. I believe that from every situation, leaves a place for someone to grow.
Dwelling over something should not be how people live their lives. More so than me, this has affected my brother, sister and mostly my Mom. Seeing the hurt and anguish on my mothers face on a daily basis absolutely kills me. I feel for her more than I do myself and I would do anything to cotton renaissance essays make things better for her. My Dad, being an alcoholic is one of the most stubborn people I know and he refuses to quit drinking. Knowing he is ruining my family a little more each day, he still continues to drink.
As of today, February 19, 2010 my Dad still drinks. He is essay help choosing to tear our family apart. For Algernon! Until he stops drinking, I will not forgive him for what he has done. Everyone deserves a second chance; all he needs to do is prove that he wants one. In my eyes, he is anthem essay help a drunk and question in essay I do not consider him my father. He has not been here for anthem help, me for the last two years, if not longer and I am choosing not to be here for him as long as he is going to drink. The day I hit him will live with me forever. The fact that I don’t talk to the boy in striped pyjamas him and anthem essay help don’t give him the respect that a daughter should give to her father, must deep down bother him greatly. Thesis Flowers! I know that my father misses me as well as everyone in my family, but right now alcohol is his first priority. If he ever realizes what is important to anthem essay him, he will hopefully get help and go back to question being the father that I once knew, loved and respected. Essay! Until then, my feelings of hate, are too far overpowering.
I lost my father to macbeth sleepwalking alcohol. Have you suggested your daughter check out ACOA? What did your husband say when you shared the. Very sad, the pain we inflict on others with our desire to drink. © 2017 Sober Recovery. All rights reserved.
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Early life and career of anthem essay, Barack Hussein Obama. Barack Hussein Obama II aka Barry Soetoro ,     born in Kenya, August 4, 1961      Barack Hussein Obama was born in Mombasa, Kenya to Barack Obama Sr. (b. Alego, Kenya, 1936 - d. Nairobi, Kenya, 1982) and Stanley Ann Dunham (1942–1995) in 1961, however some still question Obama's natural born citizen status. Club Harlem Essays? Obama's birth father, a subject of the British Empire born in what was then the British colony of Kenya, was a Marxist, while Obama's maternal family had roots in other progressive left and atheist traditions. Help? Obama later was to make the rather ostensible claim to thesis flowers for algernon the Chicago Sun-Times religion editor Cathleen Falsani on April 5, 2004, I'm rooted in anthem help, the Christian tradition. Lady Macbeth Sleepwalking?  In point of fact, Obama was reared in the Islamic faith while living with his mother and stepfather, Lolo Soetoro, in help, Jakarta, Indonesia in the mid-1960s until the early 1970s.  It is i like essay, believed Stanley Ann Dunham moved to Hawaii with the young Obama about help, 1970 or 1971 where he attended the elite Punahou School and graduated in i like most essay, 1979. Ann Dunham died at Straub Clinic, Honolulu, Hawaii on Nov. 7, 1995. (She was born in Wichita, Kansas, 29 Nov. 1942). Dunham wrote Surviving Against the Odds: Village Industry in Indonesia, ca.
1992. Essay Help? (Published: 2009, Duke University Press)  Political Affairs magazine describes itself as affiliated with the Communist Party USA,  (CPUSA) published a speech by Prof. Gerald Horne upon receipt of the CPUSA archives at the Tamiment Library at New York University on questions March 28, 2007. Prof. Horne stated, evoking the language in Chairman Mao's Little Red Book , In the 1995 book, Dreams from my Father , the author wrote Obama learned to respect Davis's struggles, recognizing them as my own. Anthem Essay Help? Obama sought Davis's advise as he left for college.  Initially Obama attended Occidental College in question in essay, Los Angeles, California, before transferring to Columbia University in New York, New York and graduating without honors as a Bachelor of anthem help, Arts degree, majoring in political science. Obama refuses to most essay describe his academic performance at Columbia despite commenting about New York during this period and despite disclosures of the academic record for all other major-party presidential candidates since at least 2000.  In 1983 and 84 while a senior undergraduate at Columbia University, Obama attended several annual sessions of the Socialist Scholars Conference  held in New York's Cooper Union.
It was here Obama first was exposed to Black Liberation Theology and anthem essay help community organizing and made the career choice to leave the field of foreign relations and nuclear disarmament to lady macbeth essay pursue community organizing.  After working as a community organizer in New York City and Chicago, Illinois, Obama enrolled at Harvard Law School. Essay Help? He became a member of the the boy in striped pyjamas Harvard Law Review , which uses racial quotas, in 1989. He was then elected by popular vote as its first African American president in 1990, a story that was immediately promoted in the New York Times.  He graduated magna cum laude with his J.D. in 1991, but did not serve in a clerkship. Federal clerkships are the typical post-graduate position for top law students. Obama has stated that his favorite professors in school were Marxists. Obama has described himself as a constitutional law professor at essay help, the University of Chicago.  He held the asking question position of Lecturer, an adjunct position, from 1992 to 1996. Essay Help? He held the the book i like most position of Senior Lecturer from 1996 until his election to the senate in 2004. Dan Ronayne, a spokesman for the Republican National Committee, has pointed that Obama was only a senior lecturer and not a full professor. Help?  The University states that Senior Lecturers are regarded as professors, although not full-time or tenure track.  
According to club harlem renaissance the White House website, White House Press Secretary Robert Gibbs responded to essay this to pyjamas this question on April 14, 2009, Q Why is the anthem essay President blocking habeas corpus from prisoners at Bagram? I thought he taught constitutional law. And these prisoners have been there -- MR. GIBBS: You're incorrect that he taught on constitutional law.  Following law school, Obama linked up with local communist networks in Chicago  and oversaw community organizing as director of Illinois Project Vote!
Obama states he saw opportunism in Chicago after the election of Harold Washington as the city’s first black mayor.  John Bachtell, CPUSA Illinois district organizer, said at essays, a special meeting on African American Equality, Building the anthem essay help Communist Party and the Young Communist League on September 30, 2007, The historic election of essay, Washington was the anthem essay culmination of many years of struggle. It reflected a high degree of unity of the African American community and the alliance with a section of labor, the Latino community and progressive minded whites. This legacy of political independence also endures.  Obama states that he has consistently opposed the Iraq War since 2002. In his famous speech delivered at themes for argumentative, a rally organized by SDS veterans   Carl Davidson and Marilyn Katz in Chicago on October 2, 2002  Even though Saddam had, in Obama's words, developed chemical and biological weapons Obama condoned the most hideous torture  and anthem essay help dismissed Bush administration objectives of lady macbeth essay, democratization and human rights as fighting a dumb war. Essay Help? A commentator observed, one would search long and hard for any words from this apostle of for algernon, hope and change about the palpable benefits that democracy might bring to the Arabs and Muslims of the Middle East.  Michelle Robinson began employment at the Chicago Law firm of Sidley-Austin in anthem essay help, 1988 where disbarred attorney and Weather Underground terrorist Bernardine Dohrn also worked.   Sidley-Austin is the macbeth legal advisor to ACORN,  a group accused of facilitating tax fraud, ballot box stuffing, human trafficking and anthem essay child prostitution. Flowers?  Barack Obama was hired a year later and appears to have misrepresented where he and help future First Lady - Michelle Robinson Obama - first met. In 1993 he was hired as an i like associate at the Chicago law firm Miner, Barnhill Galland, P.C., and lectured at the University of Chicago.
At this time he was also cited as being the author of Dreams from My Father , an account his background, youth, early life influences, and education. Dreams was published in 1995. Engineers defeat of anthem, moderate Democrats. In 1992 as head of Illinois Project Vote, Obama was instrumental in subverting the reelection bid of a centrist Democratic Senator. The Boy Pyjamas Essay Questions?  Obama engineered the defeat of incumbent U.S. Senator Alan Dixon  after Dixon voted in favor of placing a black man in a high federal office. Anthem Essay? The leftist website dKosopedia reported Dixon's vote to confirm US Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas outraged the Braun forces. Question?  With CPUSA and Obama organizing efforts,  Braun's forces defeated the moderate incumbent in the Primary, 38% to essay 35%. Sandy Newman, founder of Project Vote! told Chicago Magazine , I was asking around among community activists in in striped pyjamas essay questions, Chicago and around the country, and they kept mentioning him (Obama). He did one hell of a job. The magazine further reported, To understand the full implications of Obama's effort, you first need to understand how voter registration often has worked in Chicago. The Regular Democratic Party spearheaded most drives, with Obama at the helm of Chicago's Project Vote!, those conditions had been reversed. He helped train 700 deputy registrars, out of a total of anthem, 11,000 citywide.
Joseph Gardner, the director of the steering committee for Project Vote! said the thesis flowers for algernon numbers of new voter registrations under Obama were overwhelming. Radical and terrorist endorsements and associations. In 1995 a cadre of like minded individuals gathered in anthem essay, the home of Weather Underground (WUO) terrorists Bernardine Dohrn and William Bill Ayers. According to lady Dr. Quentin Young, I can remember being one of a small group of help, people who came to the book i like quran Bill Ayers' house to learn that Alice Palmer was stepping down from the senate and running for anthem Congress. Dohrn  is lady essay, a veteran of guerrilla warfare training in Cuba prior to the attacks on the 1968 Democratic National Convention. Carl Davidson, webmaster of Progressives for Obama, was told by Fidel Castro at the same time Castro believed the United States was ready for revolution. Dr. Young related Illinois State Senator Alice Palmer was choosing then Chicago city councilman Barack Obama as her successor.  Palmer once served on anthem the executive board of the U.S. Peace Council, a KGB front organization  that actively opposed President Ronald Reagan's defense program. Ayers and Dohrn took credit, and the boy questions have never denied, responsibility for a series of essay help, terrorist bombings which included the U.S.
Capitol, the Pentagon and pyjamas questions the State Department. Ayers, Dohrn and Barack Obama's friendship and associations go back to the 1980s. The Ayers/Dohrn group lent notoriety among leftists to anthem essay launch Obama's career. Ayers, Dohrn and Jeff Jones  of the cotton club essays Apollo Alliance authored Prairie Fire: The Politics of Revolutionary Anti-imperialism, the help title of which is taken from i like most, The Sayings of Mao Zedong,  a single spark can set a prairie fire. The book declares we are communist men and women.  Obama Green Czar Van Jones is a founder of the Apollo Alliance. In response to the Gulf of Mexico oil spill disaster, Katrina Vanden Huevel of The Nation magazine suggested we need a Manhattan Project, an Apollo Alliance.  Obama was elected to the Illinois State Senate in 1996 and help served there for the next eight years.
President Obama is the first person having ties to a known former terrorist to asking question gain control over America's nuclear weapons.   Author and blogger Jack Cashill requisitioned a comparison of the writing style of Bill Ayers' 2001 memoir, Fugitive Days , with Barack Obama's earlier 1995 book, Dreams From My Father , and came to the conclusion that Obama's former boss, Bill Ayers, had ghostwritten Dreams .  Ayers confesses to violent acts, planting bombs, says he has no regrets and feels he should have done more.  Later Ayers was to publicly admit that he actually did author the book.  Candidate of the Marxist New Party. In 1995 Obama accepted the nomination, signed a contract,  and ran as a candidate of the help openly Marxist New Party.   The New Party was an electoral alliance that worked alongside ACORN, formed by question members of the Democratic Socialists for anthem help America (SPUSA and DSAUSA) and the boy in striped pyjamas essay leaders of an offshoot of the Community Party USA (CPUSA).  The New Party was funded by literally hundreds of leftist front-groups operating as special interest 527 organizations.  Obama established himself as a chief spokesperson in opposition to the War on essay Terror during an October 2002 rally at Federal Plaza in Chicago  organized by radical SDS veteran and later Progressives for Obama webmaster,  Carl Davidson. The speech was delivered before Operation Iraqi Freedom was authorized by the Democratic controlled U.S. Senate. A Transcript of Obama's speech can be found on barackobama.com and a portion reads as follows: According to NPR's Don Gonyea the essays 2008 Obama Presidential campaign re-created portions of the speech for a television ad with Obama rereading the text and crowd noises added in a sound studio. 
Following a failed campaign for the House of Representatives, Obama ran for the open Senate seat from Illinois in 2004. Obama delivered the keynote address at the 2004 Democratic National Convention. He won a seat in the U.S. Senate after liberals obtained the release of confidential and personally embarrassing divorce records of anthem essay help, his opponent, Jack Ryan, forcing him to resign from the race and be replaced by the out-of-state candidate Alan Keyes. Radical endorsements, support, and get out the vote efforts. The People's Weekly World which describes itself as the asking question direct descendant of the Daily Worker that enjoys a special relationship with the Communist Party USA, founded in 1919, and anthem essay help publishes its news and views,  reported on Obama's 2004 Senate primary campaign: October 2008 crimes against Academy Award winner Jennifer Hudson's family highlighted Obama's record against law and order, as he voted against making it a crime in Illinois for convicts on probation or on bail to club harlem have contact with a street gang.   'We've got 75,000 gang members - that's almost six gang members to one police officer,' in Obama's hometown of Chicago. Essay?  A March 16, 2005 AP article puts Senator Obama on record to ban oil drilling in the Alaska frontier known as ANWR  In May 2007, Obama (and Sen. Hillary Clinton) voted against funding the Iraq War for club renaissance the first time.   His 2007 voting record in the U.S.
Senate makes him as its most liberal member. Among fellow Senate Democrats, he was further left than liberals like Ted Kennedy, John Kerry, Dianne Feinstein, Charles Schumer, Russ Feingold, Carl Levin, Joseph Biden and Harry Reid.  He has grown steadily more liberal since arriving at the Senate: the same analysis assessed him as 10th most liberal in 2006  and 16th most liberal in 2005. Essay?  In late 2006, Obama's second book, The Audacity of essays, Hope , was published. Its title was supplied by the Rev. Jeremiah A. Wright Jr., a minister who has stated that racism is how this country was founded and how this country was run . We believe in white supremacy and anthem essay help black inferiority and themes essays believe it more than we believe in anthem help, God. Club Harlem Essays?  The book contains more of Senator Obama's personal story including the roles of anthem help, both family and politics. Audacity spent 30 weeks on the New York Times Nonfiction Best Sellers list. 
Senator Obama is the chairman of an important subcommittee that has oversight of harlem essays, our efforts in Afghanistan. He has not held a single hearing on help Afghanistan even though American forces are risking their lives in a theater of for argumentative, war. Since joining Foreign Relations, Obama has missed three meetings on a new strategy in Afghanistan, a country he only visited in 2008.  Barack Obama clinched his party's nomination for President after 16 straight months of campaigning. In June 2008, Obama voted with the essay Democratic party to kill the sunset provision of the Bush tax cuts. By letting these tax cuts expire, single mothers with two kids will pay an additional $1,800 annually. Married couples with incomes of $50,000 will pay an additional $2,180 annually. Elderly couples will pay an additional $2,000 annually and a family of flowers, four will pay 191% more per year in taxes. Anthem Essay? Barack Obama often claims to be for taxing the the boy pyjamas rich their fair share. By voting to eliminate the Bush tax cuts, Obama is taxing most middle class and blue collar families. Obama and the Democratic-led Congress has voted for the upgraded GI Bill despite the opposition from the President, the help Secretary of Defense, the Pentagon, the generals in combat zones and the book i like most the GOP Presidential nominee.
It was crafted to increase veteran benefits. Yet, the anthem strain on our military is great.  The bill would cost $2.8 to $4 billion per month. Lady Macbeth? Some argue that this bill depletes the US's volunteer military personnel by enticing them to anthem essay leave service rather than be re-deployed. As senator, Obama has requested nearly $936 million in earmarks which averages to in striped essay questions $500,000. per anthem help, day over four years,  for which the thesis Council for Citizens Against Government Waste has given him a rating of 10% in essay, 2007 (18% lifetime).  A score of 100% represents voting against all pork, and 0% represents voting for all pork. Democrats averaged 5% in thesis, 2007, whereas Republicans averaged 60%.  According to a Fox News report on anthem help October 5, Obama has taken more than $126,000. in campaign contribution from Fannie Mae in a little over three years.
This ranks him second, only Chris Dodd has received more campaign contribution dollars from Fannie Mae. Use of filibuster and obstructionism. White House Communication Director Dan Pfeiffer described the frustration of an lady Administration having its legislative agenda delayed by filibusters and essay obstructionism: If we're going to have a government that works for the American people, then we need to themes for argumentative essays focus on the things that actually matter . Every day we waste delaying votes on well-qualified public servants or obstructing progress on problems that need solving is essay, a day we're not doing our jobs.  The Washington Post claims partisan obstructionism is a legislative tactic [Obama] once practiced himself: In 2005, a year after his election to the Senate, Obama placed a hold on Susan Bodine to lead the lady sleepwalking essay Environmental Protection Agency office that oversees Superfund and emergency cleanup programs because the agency had missed a deadline on new regulations for essay help lead paint exposure. In September 2006, Obama and for algernon Sen. Anthem Essay Help? Richard J. Durbin (D-Ill.) blocked Robert L. Wilkie's nomination as a Defense Department assistant secretary over sleepwalking, a long-delayed Pentagon report on Midwestern wind farms. And Obama joined with other Democrats in October 2007 to block the help nomination of Hans von Spakovsky to the Federal Election Commission. Von Spakovsky later withdrew; Wilkie and Bodine were eventually confirmed.  Voted agaist debt ceiling increase.
In 2006 Senator Obama vote against an increase in the National debt ceiling. Obama stated that raising the debt was a sign of leadership failure. When the question was posed to former press secretary Robert Gibbs on in striped essay January 5, 2011, Gibbs said Obama's vote was acceptable because it was symbolic.  Obama's principal legislation was S. Anthem? 2433, which was an in essay attempt to force the U.S. to increase its foreign aid by hundreds of billions of dollars under the guise of reducing global poverty, which was subsequently blocked by help conservatives.  Obama did support and co-sponsor a bill championed by the boy questions Tom Coburn and known as the Coburn-Obama Government Transparency Act of 2006, which was signed into law by President George W. Bush on Sept. 9, 2006.
This law created a website that will list the federal government's grants and contracts.  Between Jan 13, 2007 and March 13, 2008, Sen. Obama has sponsored 120 mostly liberal resolutions and bills in the Senate.  His supporters cite the following less liberal examples, but this list is anthem essay help, not representative: S.117: A bill to for algernon amend titles 10 and anthem 38, United States Code, to in striped pyjamas improve benefits and services for members of the anthem help Armed Forces, veterans of the asking Global War on Terrorism, and anthem help other veterans, to require reports on the effects of the thesis Global War on Terrorism, and for other purposes. S.133: A bill to promote the national security and anthem essay help stability of the economy of the United States by reducing the i like essay dependence of the United States on essay oil through the lady use of alternative fuels and new technology, and for other purposes. S.453: A bill to prohibit deceptive practices in anthem help, Federal elections. S.713: A bill to ensure dignity in care for members of the Armed Forces recovering from injuries.
A bill to raise the minimum wage; Obama voted against the bill when it was later attached to for algernon an Iraq war supplemental bill to pay the troops.  Senate Foreign Relations Committee. Obama worked with Sen. Lugar writing legislation aimed at essay, improving conventional and nuclear non-proliferation efforts. This legislation was signed by President Bush in for argumentative, January 2008. In June 2007 the Senate passed his resolution condemning violence by the Zimbabwe government. It also passed legislation co-sponsored by Obama that financed a Special Court for anthem Sierra Leone to prosecute former Liberian President Charles Taylor.  Barack Obama continued to essays collect money for a 2010 Senate re-election campaign as late as June 2008, and filed reports indicating money was still pouring into this fund. This is especially notable because it is an help efficient way of sidetracking donations from his Presidential race. The websiteobamasenate2010.gov is now defunct.
In his presidential campaign, Obama stated  that foreign policy is the area where I am probably most confident and then cited having lived in Indonesia for asking question four years, having family that is impoverished in essay, small villages in Africa. He lived in themes for argumentative essays, Indonesia from age 6 to 10, and anthem help he later discovered that his father had some other children in Africa. While campaigning, he has visited several foreign countries. In Russia and the former Soviet republics, he met with representatives of the International Republican Institute and National Democratic Institute to discuss democracy in the former Soviet republics. He also met with Russian military officials and visited several nuclear and biological weapons destruction sites in i like, Russia, Ukraine, and Azerbaijan with Senate Foreign Relations Committee Chairman Richard Lugar (R-IN). On the same tour, he visited London, UK, and essay help met with Tony Blair, sitting UK Prime Minister. Obama visited South Africa, Kenya, Ethiopia, Djibouti, and Chad; he discussed his tour of Robben Island prison, met with U.S. troops, and visited refugee camps of the people fleeing Darfur. Cotton? He also addressed Africa's growing AIDS epidemic. During a ten-day-long tour of the Middle East, he talked with government leaders in Qatar, Kuwait, Iraq, Jordan, and Israel. Obama and help his running mate Senator Joseph Biden won the presidential election  after 23 months of campaigning that spent over $700 million,  much of it raised from undisclosed or fraudulent donors,  bailout recipients     and big oil polluters. Thesis Flowers For Algernon?    Obama spent far more per vote than McCain did: Obama spent $7.39 per essay, vote, while McCain spent only $5.78 per vote.  To announce his trip to Berlin in July 2008, Obama used posters which show a marked similarity to pyjamas essay posters of Lenin and essay help Che Guevara.  
Obama carried 52% of the popular vote and the states John Kerry won in 2004, in the boy in striped, addition to anthem essay Iowa, North Carolina, Ohio, Virginia, Colorado, New Mexico, Nevada, Florida, and i like essay Indiana. Of the 127 million votes cast, Obama beat John McCain by 8 million total votes.  See county breakdown map  The Association of American Physicians and Surgeons observed that Obama used techniques of essay help, mind control in his campaign, as in this speech: a light will shine down from somewhere, it will light upon you, you will experience an in striped essay questions epiphany, and you will say to yourself, 'I have to vote for Barack.'  During the Democratic primaries, the Hillary Clinton Campaign  led a smear campaign against the validity of Barack Obama's Hawaii Birth certificate, claiming that it was false and that he was ineligible for Presidency. Essay Help?  During the 2008 campaign, the Obama campaign posted a copy of his short form birth certificate.  After two and one half years of lady, refusing to essay address the matter and more than 2 million dollars in legal fees, the White House produced a copy of Barack Obama's long-form birth certificate.  In attempting to ameliorate the question from the podium of the club renaissance essays White House press briefing room, Obama descended into ad hominem attacks against his rivals.   Obama told the journalists gathered that he had more important things to do and immediately flew to Chicago for a taping of the Oprah Winfrey show.  Obama hired Robert Malley as a senior foreign policy adviser.
Malley told the Times of anthem help, London that he had been in regular contact with the terrorist organization Hamas. In April 2008 Hamas made its endorsement of Obama for President.  Malley is the son of a key member of the Egyptian Communist Party.  Ideological views and affiliations. Although polls  reveal African-Americans claim a Christian identity in themes for argumentative, larger numbers (78%) than the U.S. population as a whole, only one in three Americans believe Obama's contention that he is essay help, a Christian.  Obama's socio-political positions have been described as that of a “Marxist leftist.  On numerous occasions Obama community organizers have been found flaunting banners of the notorious Marxist guerrilla and most quran essay murderer, Che Guevara. Anthem Essay?  Former presidential candidate Alan Keyes calls Obama a radical communist.  in 2011 Obama authorized covert aid to al Qaeda in essay, Libya.     and assisted in having him killed. More than a year and a half into Obama's presidency, a poll conducted by the Pew Research Center found a growing number of essay, Americans believe the president is a Muslim. The poll found only about one-third of adults (34%) believe Obama is a Christian, down sharply from 48% in 2009. Among Democrats, 46% said they think Obama is quran essay, a Christian, down from essay, 55% in themes for argumentative, March 2009.  The evidence that Obama is essay help, a Muslim may include: Obama declared in prepared remarks, The United States has been enriched by the boy in striped questions Muslim Americans . Anthem? Many other Americans have Muslims in their families or have lived in a Muslim-majority country - I know, because I am one of them .  Obama's wife Michelle does not accompany him to Muslim nations because Sharia law would apply to her there; on a presidential trip she was with him until France, but then returned home. Obama's background, education, and outlook are Muslim, and fewer than 1% of Muslims convert to Christianity.  Obama's middle name (Hussein) references Husayn , who was the grandson of themes essays, Muhammad,  which most Christians would not retain. Help? 
Obama mentioned his religion as my Muslim faith.  He has said that Islam can be compatible with the modern world.  Obama said the Muslim call to prayer is one of the prettiest sounds on Earth at sunset, and flowers recited with a first-class Arabic accent the opening lines: Allah is Supreme! . I witness that there is no god but Allah .  Obama stated that the autobiography of essay, Malcolm X, a Nation of Islam leader who became a Muslim, inspired him in his youth]. Harlem Renaissance Essays?  Obama raised nearly $1 million and campaigned for a Kenyan presidential candidate who had a written agreement with Muslim leaders promising to convert Kenya to an Islamic state that bans Christianity.  Obama's claims of conversion to anthem help Christianity arose after he became politically ambitious, lacking a date of conversion or baptism.  In the book Obama,Renegade his friends say that he actually really wasn't much of a churchgoer.  On the campaign trail, Obama was reading The Post-American World by Fareed Zakaria,  which is written from a Muslim point-of-view.  Contrary to Christianity, the Islamic doctrine of macbeth sleepwalking essay, taqiyya encourages adherents to deny they are Muslim if it advances the cause of Islam. Obama uses the Muslim Pakistani pronunciation for essay Pakistan rather than the common American one. Question?  Obama was thoroughly exposed to anthem Christianity as an adult in Chicago prior to attending law school, yet no one at law school saw him display any interest in the boy in striped essay questions, converting. Obama unabashedly explained how he became churched in a 2007 speech: It's around that time [while working as an anthem essay organizer for the Developing Communities Project (DCP) of the Calumet Community Religious Conference (CCRC) in Chicago] that some pastors I was working with came around and asked if I was a member of questions, a church. 'If you're organizing churches,' they said, 'it might be helpful if you went to anthem a church once in a while.' And I thought, 'I guess that makes sense.'  Obama tries to downplay his Islamic background by claiming that his Kenyan Muslim father was a confirmed atheist before Obama was born, but in fact less than 1% of questions, Kenyans are atheists, agnostics, or non-religious.  There is essay, apparently no evidence of any Christian activities or local church participation by Obama while he was in Massachusetts from 1988 to 1991, nor of Barack Obama's joining of a Mosque (The Islamic house of worship) at any time in his life. The Boy Pyjamas Essay? Finally, Obama abruptly left his radical Christian church in Chicago in 2008, when it became politically controversial, without first finding another church to join. On April 7, 2009, Obama visited a mosque in Istanbul, Turkey. Help? 
Obama has consistently shown himself to be a liberal elitist who looks down on ordinary Americans. Sleepwalking Essay? Asked while campaigning for the Pennsylvania primary to explain why small-town Democrats did not support him, Obama fumed it's not surprising, then, they get bitter, they cling to guns or religion or antipathy to people who aren't like them or anti-immigrant sentiment or anti-trade sentiment as a way to explain their frustrations. When Obama made this remark he was alluding to small-town people who had experienced long periods of joblessness. In response to help predictable outrage when his remarks were unexpectedly publicized, Obama did not recant his statement but instead replied, I didn't say it as well as I should have.  Although many rural counties went for McCain, Obama carried the state with 54.6% of the vote, compared to 44.3% for John McCain.  In an attempt to counter the view held by many of cotton club, Obama's elitist and bourgeois lifestyle, he began running campaign ads claiming that he worked his way through college and Harvard Law. This claim is at help, best an exaggeration, as Obama only held summer jobs while in college and thesis flowers for algernon law school,  and he would have likely benefited from anthem help, special scholarships not available to most students.
In the essays years 2000 through 2004, before becoming a United States Senator and being in the public spotlight, Obama gave less than 2% of his earnings to charity even though he made $250,000 per year. Since becoming a national figure, that amount has jumped to about 6%. Essay?  Below is Obama's charitable giving expressed as percentage of his income for the years of 2000 to 2006 when he was earning about $250,000 per year: Obama's charitable giving pattern is not surprising given what we know about in essay, United States liberal politicians and charitable giving and also the charitable giving in the general population of liberals in the United States.   A deep strain of Maoist thought has pervaded Barack Obama's influences throughout his life and persisted in appointments he has made as President. SDS veteran and help Progressives for Obama webmaster  Carl Davidson first met Barack Obama through the Chicago New Party, whose endorsement and campaign workers Obama sought and accepted in his run for the Illinois state senate in 1996. Davidson organized the October 2002 rally at Federal Plaza in Chicago  where Obama was established as a chief spokesperson for anti-US foreign policy. Davidson was a leading member of the October League (OL) and the Communist Party (Marxist-Leninist), or CP(M-L)  hailed by Chinese Communist Party chairman Hua Guofeng at banquet for CP(M-L) leaders in thesis flowers for algernon, Beijing in 1977 as the semi-official Maoist party in the United States.
Hua Guofeng declared the founding of the CP(ML) a “new victory of the Marxist-Leninist Movement in the U.S.”  Davidson is a longtime supporter of the VVAW  whose chief spokesman John Kerry charged American servicemen with war crimes. The VVAW worked in collusion with North Vietnam and the Vietcong to organize a domestic insugency  and the defeat of the United States in Vietnam.  In 2004 Davidson said, the anthem help U.S government, at least over the past 50 years, has been the lady essay chief terrorist and sponsor of terrorism in the world.  Obama appointed Anita Dunn as White House Communications Office Director in anthem, April 2009. In June 2009 Dunn publicly declared herself, before a group of high students, to be a deep admirer of lady sleepwalking, Chairman Mao's political philosophy. Anthem Help? Mao is recognized as the largest mass murderer ever on the planet. For Algernon?  Obama appointee Van Jones was a founder  of the often vulgar Maoist   organization STORM. STORM's own literature describes the organization as laying a foundation to build Third World communism. The group studied Lenin's theories of the state, revolution, the anthem help party, and themes for argumentative essays the political ideas of Mao Tse-tung.  According to the document, the growing Maoist orientation within the group was a factor contributing to anthem internal strife and the group's eventual dissolution.  The document states that in addition to the basics of Marxism, including dialectical materialism, it conducted a group reading of Mao's On Practice and lady macbeth On Contradiction and essay pushed at club essays, or went beyond the limits of the traditional Marxist canon, studying such topics as revolutionary feminism, the Palestinian liberation struggle, transgender liberation, methods of anthem, evaluation, self-care for cadre and revolutionary mass [community] organizing.  The group was extensively involved in the boy in striped essay questions, the community organizing movement. Essay Help?  In 1992 the premier Maoist organization in cotton renaissance essays, the United States, the anthem essay help Revolutionary Communist Party (RCP)  and harlem renaissance offshoot of SDS was instrumental in essay help, fomenting riots in Los Angeles in which 58 people were killed, and themes more than 2,300 injured in anthem, the wake of the trial of four police officers charged with beating Rodney King.  Van Jones traveled from Connecticut to sleepwalking essay be on hand and was arrested in the aftermath.  Van Jones is anthem essay help, also a founding board member of Apollo Alliance for clean energy and so-called green-collar jobs. I Like Most Quran Essay?  Jeff Jones is the anthem help New York State director of Apollo Alliance.  Jeff Jones was a member of the Maoist Action Faction of SDS and along with Ayers and Dohrn co-authored Prairie Fire: The Politics of renaissance, Revolutionary Anti-imperialism based on the Sayings of Chairman Mao. Obama Car Czar Ron Bloom declared himself in agreement with Chairman Mao and referred to the free market system as nonsense.  Obama fundraiser, personal friend, and former employer Dr.
Bill Ayers' teaching curricula relies heavily on material that use Mao Zedong, Josef Stalin, Vladimir Lenin, and Fidel Castro as authoritative sources.  Ayers has been a committed Maoist since at anthem essay, least 1969. Sleepwalking Essay?  Ayers is said to have ghost written part of anthem, Barack Obama's autobiography, Dreams From My Father.  Ayers was a leader in the SDS's Maoist Action Faction which became the Weather Underground (WUO). Lady Macbeth Sleepwalking Essay? Ayers, Jeff Jones, and anthem Mark Rudd of flowers, Progressives for Obama paid homage to anthem essay help Anna Louise Strong, author of the The Thought of Mao Tse-tung,  after purging deviationist elements from the SDS leadership in 1969.  Ayers wife, former FBI Top Ten Most Wanted terrorist Bernardine Dohrn, worked in the Law Firm of Sidley Austin  in the late 1980s where Barack, Michelle Obama, and Dohrn first met. Dohrn participated in the purging of the book most, CPUSA elements from SDS leadership and declared the essay help refurbished SDS leadership would be responsible for the correct Marxist-Leninist line and would exclude non-Maoist, deviationist views. The Book I Like Quran? Dohrn held the leadership position of Inter-Organizational Secretary in the SDS National Office. The Ayers/Dohrn faction of SDS formed the help Weather Underground Organization. SDS Regional Community Organizer David Gilbert declared violent Third World revolution was the only way to achieve world communism, the goal of WUO.  ACORN founder Wade Rathke was an alumnus of the thesis flowers for algernon Maoist dominated Students for a Democratic Society (SDS).  Obama told ACORN during the transition, we're going to be calling all of you in to anthem essay help help us shape the agenda. We're going to be having meetings all across the country with community organizations so that you have input into the agenda for the next presidency of the United States of America.  The Honolulu Record , the newspaper Obama's mentor Frank Marshall Davis wrote for flowers for algernon was accused of Maoist deviationism during the Sino-Soviet split by its CPUSA overlords. Help?  Jeremiah Wright and liberation theology.
Despite Wright's rabid and sarcastic anti-American sermons, the Obama's regularly took their two small children to hear him speak. One Obama supporter remarked, I cannot fathom allowing my children to hear filth from the pulpit.  Obama and his wife (raised a Baptist) were members of the themes essays Trinity United Church of Christ  in essay help, Chicago. The church embraces black liberation theology and for argumentative its emphasis on empowering so-called oppressed groups against establishment forces. This denomination was the first in America to ordain gays as ministers. Essay?  According to his sister, Obama was baptized at this church the same year. Themes For Argumentative?  Obama describes his conversion in The Audacity of Hope . Anthem Essay? The title was inspired by one of i like quran essay, Wright's sermons. Anthem Essay Help? After 20 years of asking in essay, being an active member, in April 2008 candidate Obama made public statements poised to anthem essay set him at odds with the man who conducted his wedding and club essays baptized his children. With the negative publicity persisting, a month later Obama ended the friendship, left Wright's church, and blamed the media. Essay?  Obama claimed “It’s not fair to the other members of the church who seek to worship in i like, peace. Anthem Help? , and distanced himself from Wright's sermons as a bunch of rants that aren't grounded in the truth.   Wright had been making inflammatory comments and posting his sermons online for sleepwalking essay sale.
These include the statement G-d damn America, and in describing the September 11th attacks, We have supported state terrorism against the Palestinians and black South Africans, and anthem help now we are indignant because the stuff we have done overseas is now brought right back to our own front yards. America's chickens are coming home to roost. The Book I Like Most Essay?  In addition, Rev. Wright blamed America saying We supported Zionism shamelessly while ignoring the Palestinians and branding anybody who spoke out against anthem, it as being anti-Semitic. Daniel Pipes claims that Obama was raised a Muslim because he attended classes on the Koran while attending a Muslim school.  Obama did attend a school administrated by Muslims but CNN reports that it was a non-religious public school attended by students of many faiths, not a madrassa.  In Indonesia, I'd spent 2 years at a Muslim school, 2 years at a Catholic school. In the Muslim school, the teacher wrote to tell mother I made faces during Koranic studies. In the Catholic school, when it came time to pray, I'd pretend to close my eyes, then peek around the room. Nothing happened. No angels descended. Just a parched old nun and 30 brown children, muttering words.
Sometimes the nun would catch me, and her stern look would force my lids back shut. But that didn't change how I felt inside.  Obama has described his upbringing as occurring in a non-religious environment. In sum, my mother viewed religion through the eyes of the anthropologist that she would become; it was a phenomenon to be treated with a suitable respect, but with a suitable detachment as well. Cotton? Moreover, as a child I rarely came in contact with those who might offer a substantially different view of essay, faith. My father was almost entirely absent from the book i like quran essay, my childhood, having been divorced from anthem essay help, my mother when I was 2 years old; in any event, although my father had been raised a Muslim, by the time he met my mother he was a confirmed atheist, thinking religion to cotton harlem renaissance essays be so much superstition. And yet for all her professed secularism, my mother was in many ways the most spiritually awakened person that I've ever known. She had an anthem help unswerving instinct for asking question kindness, charity, and love, and spent much of her life acting on that instinct, sometimes to her detriment. Without the help of religious texts or outside authorities, she worked mightily to essay instill in me the values that many Americans learn in Sunday school: honesty, empathy, discipline, delayed gratification, and hard work.
She raged at poverty and injustice.  Dreams from My Father: A Story of Race and Inheritance. (B. Obama and, allegedly, William Ayers  ) ISBN 0307383415 The Audacity of flowers, Hope: Thoughts on Reclaiming the essay American Dream. (B. Obama) ISBN 0307455874 Barack Obama in His Own Words. (B. Obama and Lisa Rogak) ISBN 0786720573 Change We Can Believe In. Barack Obama's Plan to Renew America's Promise. (B. Obama) The Case Against Barack Obama. The Unlikely Rise and lady macbeth sleepwalking Unexamined Agenda of the Media's Favorite Candidate. Anthem Essay? (David Freddso) ISBN 1596985666 The Obama Nation.
Leftist Politics and the Cult of asking question, Personality. (Jerome R. Corsi) ISBN 1416598065 Obama Unmasked. Did Slick Hollywood Handlers Create the Perfect Candidate? (Floyd Brown and Lee Trexler) ISBN 0936783591 Obama: The Man Behind The Mask. Anthem Essay? (Andy Martin) ISBN 0965781240 The Audacity of Deceit. Barack Obama's War on American Values. (Brad O'Leary) ISBN 1935071025. Early in essay, his campaign for president in 2007, Obama declared in anthem essay help, an interview with the sleepwalking Chicago Tribune, I'm a Christian. And so, although I try not to have my religious beliefs dominate or determine my political views on this issue . my religious beliefs say that marriage is something sanctified between a man and a woman.  This country is anthem help, going to honor our collective responsibility.  Hitchens, Peter The Black Kennedy: But does anyone know the real Barack Obama? Daily Mail. Accessed 4 February 2008. James Simpson, Barack Obama and the Strategy of Manufactured Crisis , American Thinker, September 28, 2008. Cotton Renaissance Essays? What Is To Be Done? Burning Questions of our Movement , Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, Lenin’s Collected Works, Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1961, Moscow, Volume 5, pp.347–530.
The Manchurian President: Barack Obama's Ties to Communists, Socialists and Other Anti-American Extremists (April 20, 2010) by help Aaron Klein, Brenda J. Elliott ISBN 1935071874. ^Obama never changed his legal name from Soetoro, HillBuzz, January 23, 2011 ^ When Barry Became Barack , By Richard Wolffe, Jessica Ramirez and Jeffrey Bartholet, NEWSWEEK, Mar 31, 2008  It didn't happen overnight. But in college, the young Barry took to being called by asking in essay his formal name. What this evolution tells us about him. Anthem Essay? ^ israelinsider. Thesis Flowers For Algernon? 14 August 2008.
Accessed 23 January 2010. Anthem Essay? ^ McGrew, Mark S. Barry Soetoro aka Barack Obama vs World Leaders. Pravda.ru. 19 January 2009. Accessed 23 January 2010. ^ ^Large, high-resolution picture of his birth certificate ^KITV Honolulu report ^ ^ Obama's African grandmother Sarah Hussein Obama says Barack was born in her presence in Kenya.Obama Born In Kenya? His Grandmother Says Yes, Israeli News, October 12, 2008Democrat: Obama's grandma confirms Kenyan birth, WND, October 23, 2008Audio Conversation Link ^http://www.suntimes.com/news/falsani/726619,obamafalsani040504.article ^Obama 'Lying' About Muslim Past, Expert Says NewsMax, October 9, 2008 ^Surviving against the Odds: Village Industry in Indonesia. ^FBI file Frank Marshall Davis, v.5 p. 58 pdf. ^Subversive Activities Control Act of 1950, 50 U.S. Code Chapter 23 Subchapter IV Sec.
841 ^FBI File 100-15799 Frank Marshall Davis, v. Club Harlem Renaissance Essays? 3 p. 26. ^ Dreams from My Father: A Story of Race and Inheritance , By Barack Obama, Random House, 2007, pp. 89-91, 96-98, . ^http://www.politicalaffairs.net/article/static/17/1/3/ ^Rethinking the History and Future of the Communist Party,By Gerald Horne, Political Affairs magazine, March 28, 2007. ^ Statement Supporting the anthem People of the Congo (L.) Against U.S. Aggression (November 28, 1964), People of the World, Unite and Defeat the U.S. Aggressors and All Their Lackeys , 2nd ed., p. 14. Cited in Quotations from Mao Tse Tung from: 1927 - 1964, Mao Tse Tung, Chapter 7 Dare to Struggle and Dare to Win, Peking Foreign Languages Press, 1966.
Online Version: Mao Tse Tung Internet Archive (marxists.org) 2000. Essays? ^ Quoted in Black Like Mao: Black Like Mao: Red China and essay Black Revolution , Robin D.G. For Algernon? Kelley and Betsy Esche, Souls Volume 1, Number 4 Fall 1999, p. 11 in original (p. 7 pdf). Help? ^ Dreams from My Father: A Story of Race and Inheritance , By Barack Obama, Random House, 2007, pp. 97, 220. In Striped Questions? ^http://www.nysun.com/new-york/obamas-years-at-columbia-are-a-mystery/85015/ ^http://www.americanthinker.com/2010/10/president_obama_and_the_radica.html ^http://www.nationalreview.com/corner/251721/radosh-reviews-iradical-chiefi-stanley-kurtz ^http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C0CE2DC1631F935A35751C0A966958260scp=3sq=Obama%201990st=cse ^ 26.026.1 ^http://www.factcheck.org/askfactcheck/was_barack_obama_really_a_constitutional_law.html ^ ^Office of the Press Secretary, April 14, 2009, whitehouse.gov ^The Jarrett Connection. Proof That Obama’s Hawaii and Chicago Communist Networks Were Linked Trevor Louden, June 01, 2009. Anthem Essay? ^ ^http://www.cpusa.org/article/articleview/858/1/39/ ^ From Protest to Politics:When war begins progressive work doesn’t end, Jeff Epton, In These Times, December 15, 2003. Retrieved March 15, 2010. In Striped Pyjamas Essay? ^Against Going to War with Iraq (2002) by Barack Obama. Anthem? Delivered on Wednesday, October 2, 2002 by for algernon Barack Obama, Illinois State Senator, at the first high-profile Chicago anti-Iraq war rally (organized by essay help Chicagoans Against War in Iraq) at noon in flowers for algernon, Federal Plaza in Chicago, Illinois. Anthem? Retrieved from the book, Wikisource.com, March 15, 2010. ^Remarks of Illinois State Sen.
Barack Obama Against Going to War with Iraq, October 02, 2002. Retrieved from www.barackobama.com March 15, 2010. ^Saddam Hussein's Regime Methods of Torture ^Obama's War, Peter Wehner, Commentary , April 2008. ^http://article.nationalreview.com/?q=NjY4YzdhMDBkZGQ3ZmU2MTUzYjdkMzc5ZjUzYmViZWM= ^http://corner.nationalreview.com/post/?q=MDIxMDJiNzU5M2Q1MTY3ZGI1YTdmOWY5MzkwN2QxYzg= ^Michelle Obama's old law firm defends ACORN, WorldNetDaily, December 23, 2008. Anthem Essay? ^http://article.nationalreview.com/?q=NmIzOTBmNGY3OGEwNzgwZWU1MjMzMjJkNWM4NzVkNmI= ^Vote of asking in essay, Confidence: A huge black turnout in November 1992 altered Chicago's electoral landscape—and raised a new political star: a 31-year-old lawyer named Barack Obama, By Gretchen Reynolds, Chicago Magazine , January 1993. ^Veteran Illinois Senator Dixon Defeated - Congress, By Bob Sector, L.A. Times , March 18, 1992. ^Carol Moseley Braun, dkosopedia.com, retrieved October 25, 2009. Some sources state Moseley Braun's outrage was directed at anthem help, the treatment of Anita Hill over question, her claims of sexual harassment by the nominee, however Moseley Braun voted to essay acquit President William Jefferson Clinton of charges stemming from a sexual harassment suit which Clinton settled by paying the aggrieved party $850,000 out of court to satisfy damage claims. ^http://newzeal.blogspot.com/2008/10/obama-file-39-barack-obama-carol.html ^ The Stealth Candidate , Transcript, Cliff Kincaid and macbeth Herbert Romerstein, May 22, 2008, p. 16. ^ House Committee on essay Un-American Activities, Subversive Involvement in Disruption of 1968 Democratic Party National Convention , and Hearings Before the Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations With Respect to flowers Intelligence Activities of the United States Senate. Ninety- Fourth Congress. First Session. Volume 6. Federal Bureau of Investigation. 1976, Exhibit 68-13., cited in Communism in Chicago and essay help the Obama Connection , Cliff Kincaid and Herbert Romerstein, usasurvival.org ^Final Talk to the Fourth Contingent, Julian Rizo DGI. ^ Georgie Anne Geyer and Keyes Beach Cuba: School for U.S. Radicals, Chicago Daily News/Chicago Sun-Times five part series October 1970, excerpted in FBI file Weather Underground Organization (Weatherman), Part 1c pp. 5-7 pdf (113-115 in original).  ^Obama once visited '60s radicals., Ben Smith, Politico, February 22, 2008. ^The Apocalyptic premise: Nuclear Arms Debated, By Ernest W. Lefever, E. Stephen Hunt, Ethics and Public Policy Center, Washington, D.C., 1982, pp.
127-137. Cotton Club? ^FBI file Weather Underground ^ Obama's 'green jobs czar' worked with terror founder Van Jones served on help board of activist group where ex-Weatherman serves as top director , By Aaron Klein, WorldNetDaily, August 13, 2009. Club Harlem Essays? ^ ^ Harvey Klehr, Far Left of Center: The American Radical Left Today (Transaction Books, New Brunswick, 1988), 109. ^ This Week, ABC News Transcript, 2 May 2010. Retrieved from LexisNexis, 3 May 2010. ^http://www.clevelandleader.com/node/7127 ^http://elections.foxnews.com/2008/08/26/obama-associate-bill-ayers-unrepentant-for-acts-of-terror/ ^http://www.cashill.com, Who Wrote Dreams From My Father? , by Jack Cashill, October 9, 2008, retrieved on anthem essay 10/16/2008  Cashill states that a computer comparison of Obama's so-called autobiography with that of the terrorist Bill Ayers, supports the evidence that Ayers actually wrote parts of Obama's book; also he wrote None of this, of course, proves Ayers' authorship conclusively, but the evidence makes him a much more likely candidate than Obama to have written the best parts of Dreams . In assessing the signature of sample passages from Dreams , the essays experienced analyst found a very strong match to all of the Ayers samples that he processed. Anthem Essay Help? He did not address the possibility that Ayers had plagiarized from Obama's earlier book. Flowers? A philosophy professor from anthem, England disagreed. ^ ^http://www.americanthinker.com/blog/2011/03/ayers_affirms_he_wrote_dreams.html ^ From the Chicago DSA website, Candidates must be approved via a NP political committee. Once approved, candidates must sign a contract with the NP. The contract mandates that they must have a visible and active relationship with the NP.
The political entourage included . Barack Obama, chief of staff for State Sen. Themes For Argumentative Essays? Alice Palmer. Obama is running for essay help Palmer's vacant seat. Retrieved from Chicago New Party Update, by the boy in striped pyjamas essay Bruce Bentley. Retrieved March 15, 2010. ^NEW PARTY (NP), discoverthenetwork.org. Anthem Essay Help? ^ Rick Moran. Obama's Alliance with Marxists, American Thinker , June 03, 2008. ^ Aaron Klein.
Newspaper shows Obama belonged to club harlem socialist party, WorldNetDaily , October 24, 2008. ^ JB Williams. Obama’s Well Organized Community Is Falling Apart, Canada Free Press , August 18, 2009. ^ 67.067.1 The rally was organized by Chicagoans Against War in Iraq (CAWI) later renamed Chicagoans Against War and Injustice. Essay Help? About CAWI by Carl Davidson, Nov 02 2006. Retrieved from Chicagoans Against War and Injustice, March 15, 2010. ^ 68.068.1Carl Davidson, LinkedIn.com, retrieved March 13, 2010. ^http://action.barackobama.com/page/share/2002iraqfull ^http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=88988093 ^About the asking in essay People's Weekly World pww.org ^ A turning point election , Joelle Fishman, People's Weekly World, 04/24/04. Essay Help? ^The CPUSA fires up its members to ‘Dump Bush!’, By Tim Wheeler, Washington correspondent, People's Weekly World , 04/24/04. ^Vernon Jarrett: a partisan journalistic giant, Dee Myles, People's Weekly World Newspaper, Jun 5, 2004. ^ ^ The person of interest in the murders of Hudson's mother, brother, and 7-year-old nephew is the estranged husband of Hudson's sister and a convicted felon who had violated his parole conditions. ^ More people have been murdered in Chicago this year than in question in essay, New York - even though New York's population is three times greater. Anthem Essay? When Hudson's mother, brother and nephew were killed last month, they pushed the city's homicide total for the year to 436 and counting. New York has had 430 homicides.  ^http://www.commondreams.org/headlines05/0316-13.htm ^ 79.079.1HR 2206 - Emergency Appropriations, Kathy Gill, Your Guide to U.S.
Politics: Current Events. Asking? May 26, 2007. ^ 80.080.1Votes - H.R. 2206: Iraq Supplemental, May 28, 2007. Retrieved from Deeper Inside the Mountain, June 4, 2007. ^ ^ 82.082.1 ^http://blog.washingtonpost.com/the-trail/2008/03/14/obama_condemns_pastors_remarks.html ^New York Times Best Sellers Non Fiction ^ ^http://marcambinder.theatlantic.com/archives/2008/05/mccain_to_obama_dont_demagogue.php , McCain To Obama: Don't Demagogue The GI Bill, May 22, 2008 ^Obama Can't Win Against Palin Wall Street Journal, September 11, 2008 ^2007 Senate Scorecard ^CCAGW Releases 2007 Congressional Ratings ^http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2011/04/obama-once-opposed-debt-ceiling-hike/237129/ ^http://www.govtrack.us/congress/bill.xpd?bill=s110-2433 ^http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2006/09/20060926.html ^http://thomas.loc.gov/ ^http://www.boston.com/news/nation/articles/2008/02/26/obamas_senate_foreign_relations_work/ ^http://www.huffingtonpost.com/mayhill-fowler/obama-says-no-to-foreign_b_95357.html ^Special Olympics chief responds to Obama gaffe, Stacy St Clair, Chicago Tribune , March 20, 2009] ^ ^http://www.opensecrets.org/pres08/summary.php?cid=N00009638 ^ Obama’s finance team missed quite a few obviously troubling large donations, from such unsavory individuals as Mr. Jfggjjfgj, 'Mong Kong,' 'Test Person,' and 'Jockim Alberton,' who lives at a fictional address on a street that does not exist in Wilmington, Delaware. Help? How many fictional characters might there be among the $220 million that Obama has collected in small, undisclosed contributions? Obama's small donors have all been recorded, and he could easily follow McCain’s lead by disclosing this major source of his campaign’s money.Fake Donors, Phony Pledge, National Review (Oct.
22, 2008) Obama did not. ^http://www.opensecrets.org/politicians/contrib.php?cid=N00009638cycle=2008 ^http://www.votesmart.org/finance.php?can_id=9490 ^ Beneficiary Banks , New York Times. 2008-10-14. ^ UBS fined $780 million in macbeth sleepwalking, tax evasion scandal, Investment News, February 19, 2009. ^Obama is biggest recipient of essay help, BP’s political action cash in the last 20 years, John Byrne, 5 May 2010. Retrieved from cotton harlem essays, rawstory.com 9 May 2010. ^ Jake Tapper, Political Punch, ABC News, 5 May 2010.  ^http://www.opensecrets.org/news/2010/04/on-thursday-oil-giant-bp.html ^http://query.nictusa.com/cgi-bin/cancomsrs/?_08+00+PR ^Obama's direct copy of a Lenin poster for his Berlin visit ^The LA Times looks into the Obama-Che iconography connection by anthem help Michelle Malkin ^http://uselectionatlas.org/RESULTS/ ^ ^http://www.aapsonline.org/newsoftheday/0089 . The doctors observe that Obama's logo is noteworthy. It is always there, a small one in the middle of the themes for argumentative essays podium, providing a point of visual fixation . [that] resembles a crystal ball, a favorite of hypnotists. ^ 113.0113.1 Swaine, Jon#32;(April 27, 2011).#32;Birther row began with Hillary Clinton.#32; The Telegraph .#32;Retrieved on Aug 12, 2012. ^http://campaignspot.nationalreview.com/post/?q=ZTgxZmIwNTg0OWVhMWJkODNmZjI4ZjY4Mjg2OWRmNzI= ^White House Releases Obama's Long-Form Birth Certificate, Fox News ^http://mediamatters.org/mmtv/201104270015 ^http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/04/28/carnival-barkers-slam-obama_n_854702.html ^http://www.mullings.com/04-29-11.htm ^Hamas terrorists make 2008 U.S. presidential pick, WolrdNetDaily.com, April 14, 2008. ^http://www.discoverthenetworks.org/individualProfile.asp?indid=2310 ^http://pewforum.org/A-Religious-Portrait-of-African-Americans.aspx#1 ^ Pew Research Center Poll, August 2010. ^http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1753197/posts ^Obama Workers' Che Guevara Poster Was No Fluke from Moonbattery ^Alan Keyes: Obama Will Destroy U.S. NewsMax, February 23, 2009 ^ Man's worst friend?
By Dana Milbank, Washington Post , April 27, 2010. ^http://www.asiantribune.com/news/2011/03/17/libyan-rebellion-has-radical-islamist-fervor-benghazi-link-islamic-militancyus-milit ^http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1371184/Libya-Obama-says-noose-tightening-Gaddafi-Natos-Al-Qaeda-warning.html?ito=feeds-newsxml ^http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-503543_162-20048982-503543.html ^http://www.odysseydawn.com/2011/04/04/al-qaeda-backing-libyan-rebels/ ^http://pewforum.org/Politics-and-Elections/Growing-Number-of-Americans-Say-Obama-is-a-Muslim.aspx ^http://middleeast.about.com/b/2009/04/06/obama-in-turkey-at-the-gates-of-islam.htm ^http://www.religionnewsblog.com/17736/barack-obama-2 ^http://www.faithfreedom.org/oped/sina31103.htm. During the third and fourth grades, Obama learned about anthem help, Islam for two hours each week in religion class, according to flowers for algernon the LATimes. Campaign downplays his connection during boyhood in Indonesia, Baltimore Sun, March 16, 2007 ^ A Brief History of The Fourteen Infallibles. Qum: Ansariyan Publications. 2004. ^ al-Qarashi, Baqir Shareef (2007).
The life of Imam Husain. Qum: Ansariyan Publications. ^ Only after Obama became politically ambitious did he declare himself to be a Christian, yet he never replaced his Muslim name Hussein with a Christian one as most do when they undergo a religious conversion. For example, when the Italian journalist Magdi Allam recently converted to Christianity, he took a new name: Cristiano. When Saul became a Christian, he changed his name to Paul; when the famous boxer Cassius Clay converted to Islam, he took the Muslim name of Muhammad Ali. It is common for anthem essay help those converting to a new religion to change their name on thesis flowers for algernon conversion or adopt a Christian name at baptism. ^ ^Obama declared, John McCain has not talked about my Muslim faith. ^Barack Obama's Christian Journey | Newsweek Politics: Campaign 2008 ^http://www.wnd.com/index.php?pageId=78309 ^ For example, Obama writes in his own autobiography, Only Malcolm X's autobiography seemed to offer something different. His repeated acts of self-creation spoke to me. The blunt poetry of his words, his unadorned insistence on respect, promised a new and uncompromising order, martial in its discipline, forged through sheer force of will. . [E]ven as I imagine myself following Malcolm's call, one line in the book stayed with me. He spoke of a wish he'd once had, the wish that the white blood that ran through him, there by an act of violence, might somehow be expunged. ^ Text of the agreement, as three images:  ^ In his book, Obama oddly claims to have been baptized without giving his age or date, and later gave a date that postdates his political ambition (1992). ^Wolffe: President Missed Rev. Anthem Essay? Wright’s Racist Rants Because 'He Wasn’t Much of asking, a Churchgoer' NewsBusters.org, June 16, 2009 ^http://www.canada.com/topics/news/world/story.html?id=fa8cf1bf-2cc8-4d6e-b72d-a07d406e19ff ^http://www.villagevoice.com/2005-08-09/news/the-interpreter/ ^ Obama repeatedly pronounced Pakistan as Pokiston in the first presidential debate. ^Obama, ACORN, and the churches SperoNews, October 7, 2008 ^Obama Organized Farrakhan’s ‘Million Man March’, NowPublic.com, April 2, 2008 ^http://islamizationwatch.blogspot.com/2010/01/kenyan-delegation-visits-sderot-israel.html ^http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/northamerica/usa/barackobama/3452281/Renegade-and-Renaissance-Obama-to-replace-Trailblazer-and-Tempo-Bush-in-the-White-House.html ^http://www.altmuslim.com/a/a/a/2873/ ^http://newsweek.washingtonpost.com/postglobal/islamsadvance/2008/11/is_obama_the_muslim_worlds_sup.html ^http://www.politico.com/news/stories/1108/15902.html ^http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/washingtondc/la-na-obama-religion26-2008dec26,0,1910913.story ^http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/ET_Cetera/Obama_to_take_oath_using_middle_name_/articleshow/3813120.cms ^http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2008/12/10/politics/main4660590.shtml?source=RSSattr=Politics_4660590 ^Video of Obama bowing almost to King's waist ^http://washingtontimes.com/news/2009/apr/07/barack-takes-a-bow/ ^http://www.politico.com/blogs/bensmith/0409/White_House_No_bow_to_Saudi.html ^http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9WlqW6UCeaY ^http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=71N34K9EVLU ^http://littlegreenfootballs.com/article/33289_Bush_Bowed_Too ^Georgetown hides Jesus' name at anthem, request of Obama's White House ^Lawmakers upset over Obama's 2nd anti-Vegas remark, WashingtonPost, February 2, 2010 ^Obama job approval highest among Muslim, Chicago Tribune, August 29, 2010 ^http://www.adherents.com/Na/Na_14.html ^http://www.breitbart.com/article.php?id=CNG.c2e3700ab4e271bc32827b0fccfe560b.421show_article=1 ^http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/7344532.stm ^ ^http://www.factcheck.org/elections-2008/obamas_work_claim.html ^http://patterico.com/2008/10/31/obama-and-bidens-charitable-giving-they-dont-want-to-spread-their-own-wealth-around/ ^http://atangledweb.squarespace.com/httpatangledwebsquarespace/obamas-charitable-contributions.html ^http://www.liveleak.com/view?i=1c5_1238044128c=1 ^http://www.realclearpolitics.com/articles/2008/03/conservatives_more_liberal_giv.html ^Reply to Carl Davidson, 15 Mar 2005. Progressive Economists Network List (PEN-L) Internet discussion. The poster states, Any investigation of the questions 1970s will reveal that the New Communist Movement evolved more than less outside the anthem essay Soviet ideological polarity, with many clinging to their particular conception of Mao Ze Tung Thought.
During the 1973-1975 period Mr. Davidson did conduct polemics against Trotskyism in the pages of the Guardian and this is perhaps the reason for the current continuing dispute. At that time I was a member of the Communist League in Detroit and Mr. Sleepwalking? Davidson was a leading member of the October League which sided with the China polarity in the Sino-Soviet split rather than taking marching orders from the Kremlin. ^Chronology of Political Events, Part Four 1975-1980. Max Elbaum. Retrieved from Revolution In The Air: Sixties Radicals Turn to Lenin, Mao and Che, March 16, 2010.
Exerpted: 1977- June 4–5: October League holds founding convention of Communist Party (Marxist-Leninist) - CP(ML); Mike Klonsky is chair.